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  • Roughing it


  • Samuel Langhorne Clemens (1835-1910), better known as "Mark Twain," left Missouri in 1861 to work with his brother, the newly appointed Secretary of the Nevada Territory. Once settled in Nevada, Clemens fell victim to gold fever and went to the Humboldt mines. When prospecting lost its attractions, Clemens found work as a reporter in Virginia City. In 1864, Clemens moved to California and worked as a reporter in San Francisco. It was there that he began to establish a nationwide reputation as a humorist. Roughing it (1891), first published in 1872, is his account of his adventures in the Far West. He devotes twenty chapters to the overland journey by boat and stagecoach to Carson City, including several chapters on the Mormons. Next come chronicles of mining life and local politics and crime in Virginia City and San Francisco and even a junket to the Hawaiian Islands. The book closes with his return to San Francisco and his introduction to the lecture circuit.


  • Twain, Mark, 1835-1910

Created / Published

  • Hartford, Conn., American Pub. Co., 1891.


  • -  California--Description and travel
  • -  West (U.S.)--Description and travel
  • -  Hawaii--Description and travel
  • -  Law--Political aspects--California
  • -  Mines and mineral resources--California
  • -  Business--California


  • -  Also available in digital form on the Library of Congress Web site.


  • xviii, [19]-591 p. front., illus., plates. 23 cm.

Call Number/Physical Location

  • PS1318 .A1 1891

Digital Id

Library of Congress Control Number

  • 07023335

Rights Advisory

  • No known restrictions on publication.

Online Format

  • online text
  • image
  • pdf

Additional Metadata Formats

IIIF Presentation Manifest

Rights & Access

"California as I Saw It:" First-Person Narratives of California's Early Years, 1849-1900.

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Credit Line: Library of Congress, [appropriate source division as described in the bibliographic record]. For example: Library of Congress, General Collections; or, Library of Congress, Rare Book and Special Collections Division.

Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Twain, Mark. Roughing It. Hartford, Conn., American Pub. Co, 1891. Pdf.

APA citation style:

Twain, M. (1891) Roughing It. Hartford, Conn., American Pub. Co. [Pdf] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

Twain, Mark. Roughing It. Hartford, Conn., American Pub. Co, 1891. Pdf. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.