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Book/Printed Material Ḥadīqat al-aqālīm / / حديقت الاقاليم /

About this Item


  • Ḥadīqat al-aqālīm

Other Title

  • /
  • حديقت الاقاليم /


  • Geographical treatise focusing on Afghanistan, Iran and India during late 18th and first half of 19th century.
  • Hadíkatu-l Akálím (An enclosed garden of the climes) is a compilation of geographic and historical information by Murtaz̤á Ḥusayn Bilgrāmī (circa 1729-95), also known as Sheikh Allahyar Usmani. Bilgrāmī was employed as munshi (secretary) to Captain Jonathan Scott, Persian secretary to Warren Hastings (1732-1818), the first British governor-general of India. Scott commissioned Bilgrāmī to write the book, which is mainly a work of geography but which also includes information on history, biography, and literature. It emphasizes Afghanistan, India, and Iran, but Europe and other parts of the world are covered to some extent. Much of the book consists of extracts from older works. The work is especially valuable as a source on events, including battles between the British and local rulers, that occurred during Bilgrāmī's lifetime. This lithographic print edition was produced in 1879. Lithographic printing was invented in Europe in the late-18th century and spread widely on the Indian subcontinent from the early 19th century onward, its popularity stemming from the relative ease with which it could be used to reproduce different scripts not based on the Latin alphabet. World Digital Library.


  • Bilgrāmī, Murtaz̤á Ḥusayn, active 1776

Created / Published

  • [Lucknow] : Munshī Naval Kishūr, [1879]


  • -  Geography--Early works to 1800
  • -  India


  • -  Lithograph.
  • -  Encyclopaedia of Islam (2nd ed.) v. 1, p. 1219
  • -  Also available in digital form on the Library of Congress Web site.
  • -  In Persian.
  • -  12/06/01 T;12/04/01 T
  • -  Acquire for L.C only.
  • -  digital files not viewed; td12 2013-7-16


  • 697 p. ; 33 cm.

Call Number/Physical Location

  • G114 .B55 1879

Digital Id

Library of Congress Control Number

  • 2001287270

Online Format

  • pdf
  • image

Additional Metadata Formats

IIIF Presentation Manifest

Rights & Access

The contents of the Library of Congress Persian Language Manuscript Project are in the public domain or have no known copyright restrictions and are free to use and reuse.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, African and Middle East Division, Near East Section Persian Manuscript Collection

Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Bilgrāmī, Murtaz̤Á Ḥusayn, Active 1776. Ḥadīqat Al-Aqālīm. [Lucknow: Munshī Naval Kishūr, 1879] Pdf.

APA citation style:

Bilgrāmī, M. Ḥ. (1879) Ḥadīqat Al-Aqālīm. [Lucknow: Munshī Naval Kishūr] [Pdf] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

Bilgrāmī, Murtaz̤Á Ḥusayn, Active 1776. Ḥadīqat Al-Aqālīm. [Lucknow: Munshī Naval Kishūr, 1879] Pdf. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.