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Book/Printed Material Taz̲kirah-i gulzār-i Aʻẓam /

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  • Taz̲kirah-i gulzār-i Aʻẓam

Other Title

  • /


  • Biographical sketches and specimen of the works of Indian, Afghani and Central Asian writers from early times.
  • Taz̲kirah-i gulzār-i Aʻẓam (The memorial known as the greatest flower meadow) is a biographical compendium of poets and their poetic output. It belongs to the taz̲kirah (memorial) genre of Persian and Indo-Persian literature. The author, Muḥammad Ghauth Khān, was born on the 29th of Dhū al-Ḥijjah 1239 AH (August 25, 1824) in Chennai, India, and was the last nawab of the Carnatic. In the introduction to Taz̲kirah, Muḥammad Ghauth Khān describes how, after writing an earlier biographical work, Ṣubḥ-i Vaṭan (Dawn of the homeland, completed in 1257 AH [1841-42]), he was eager to write a more comprehensive book, with more judiciously chosen poems for each poet. The resulting work was Taz̲kirah-i gulzār-i Aʻẓam, in which the title refers both to the genre and its author (Aʻẓam, meaning "greatest," was the takhalluṣ or pen name of the author). The gulzār (meadow) in the title refers to the collection of poets included in the work. The title is also a chronogram that references the date it was published. Taz̲kirah-i gulzār-i Aʻẓam consists of the biographical entries for 141 poets arranged alphabetically by the takhalluṣ of each poet. (The author's earlier work, Ṣubḥ-i Vaṭan, has 90 entries.) The entries here include biographical information as well as samples of each poet's work. The poets are generally from the Indian subcontinent, though on occasion they are listed as having moved to India from Persia, as, for example, in the entry for Vālih, or Muḥammad Musavī, which lists Khurāsān as his home. The work is in Persian, the literary language of India during the Mughal and ensuing eras. This edition was printed in 1272 AH (1855-56) at the Sarkāṛī printing press (likely in Rampur, India). Muḥammad's father, Nawab Aʻẓam Jāh, died shortly after his son's birth, but Muḥammad did not assume power until he was installed as nawab by British colonial administrators in 1842. Prior to this, his uncle, Prince 'Aẓīm Jāh Bahādur, acted as regent. ('Aẓīm Jāh Bahādur is listed in the Taz̲kirah-i gulzār-i Aʻẓam under the takhalluṣ Naẓīr and his entry describes a pilgrimage to Mecca and Medina as well as him founding a school for Muslim students.) Muḥammad Ghauth Khān died childless in October 1855. Rather than have power revert to 'Aẓīm Jāh Bahādur, the British East India Company chose to annex the Carnatic kingdom, thus ending the rule of the nawabs of the Carnatic. World Digital Library.


  • Aʻẓam, Muḥammad G̲h̲aus̲ K̲h̲ān̲, 1824-1855
  • Abd al-Ṣamad (Calligrapher)

Created / Published

  • [Kabul] : Maṭbaʻ-i Sarkārī, 1272 [1855 or 1856]


  • -  Persian literature--Afghanistan
  • -  Persian literature--Asia, Central
  • -  Persian literature--India
  • -  Poets, Persian--Biography
  • -  Afghanistan


  • -  LC copy has repairs to title page.
  • -  Lithograph.
  • -  Also available in digital form on the Library of Congress Web site.
  • -  08/01/02 T;05/02/02 T
  • -  Acquire for LC only.


  • 435, 4 pages ; 23 cm

Call Number/Physical Location

  • PK6427.6.I5 A96 1855

Digital Id

Library of Congress Control Number

  • 2002362447

Online Format

  • pdf
  • image

Additional Metadata Formats

IIIF Presentation Manifest

Rights & Access

The contents of the Library of Congress Persian Language Manuscript Project are in the public domain or have no known copyright restrictions and are free to use and reuse.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, African and Middle East Division, Near East Section Persian Manuscript Collection

Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

AʻẒam, Muḥammad G̲H̲Aus̲ K̲H̲Ān̲, and Abd Al-Ṣamad. Taz̲kirah-i gulzār-i Aʻẓam. [Kabul: Maṭbaʻ-i Sarkārī, 1855 or 1856, 1855] Pdf.

APA citation style:

Aʻẓam, M. G. K. & Abd Al-Ṣamad. (1855) Taz̲kirah-i gulzār-i Aʻẓam. [Kabul: Maṭbaʻ-i Sarkārī, 1855 or 1856] [Pdf] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

AʻẒam, Muḥammad G̲H̲Aus̲ K̲H̲Ān̲, and Abd Al-Ṣamad. Taz̲kirah-i gulzār-i Aʻẓam. [Kabul: Maṭbaʻ-i Sarkārī, 1855 or 1856, 1855] Pdf. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.