Photo, Print, Drawing Arguments of the chivalry
About this Item
- Arguments of the chivalry
- A dramatic portrayal, clearly biased toward the northern point of view, of an incident in Congress which inflamed sectional passions in 1856. The artist recreates the May 22 attack and severe beating of Massachusetts senator Charles Sumner by Representative Preston S. Brooks of South Carolina. Brooks's actions were provoked by Sumner's insulting public remarks against his cousin, Senator Andrew Pickens Butler, and against Illinois senator Stephen A. Douglas, delivered in the Senate two days earlier. The print shows an enraged Brooks (right) standing over the seated Sumner in the Senate chamber, about to land on him a heavy blow of his cane. The unsuspecting Sumner sits writing at his desk. At left is another group. Brooks's fellow South Carolinian Representative Lawrence M. Keitt stands in the center, raising his own cane menacingly to stay possible intervention by the other legislators present. Clearly no help for Sumner is forthcoming. Behind Keitt's back, concealed in his left hand, Keitt holds a pistol. In the foreground are Georgia senator Robert Toombs (far left) and Illinois senator Stephen A. Douglas (hands in pockets) looking vindicated by the event. Behind them elderly Kentucky senator John J. Crittenden is restrained by a fifth, unidentified man. Above the scene is a quote from Henry Ward Beecher's May 31 speech at a Sumner rally in New York, where he proclaimed, "The symbol of the North is the pen; the symbol of the South is the bludgeon." David Tatham attributes the print to the Bufford shop, and suggests that the Library's copy of the print, the only known example, may have been a trial impression, and that the print may not actually have been released. The attribution to Homer was first made by Milton Kaplan.
- Bufford, John Henry, 1810-1870.
- Homer, Winslow, 1836-1910.
Created / Published
- - Beecher, Henry Ward,--1813-1887
- - Brooks, Preston S.--(Preston Smith),--1819-1857
- - Crittenden, John J.--(John Jordan),--1787-1863
- - Douglas, Stephen A.--(Stephen Arnold),--1813-1861
- - Keitt, Lawrence M.--(Lawrence Massillon),--1824-1864
- - Sumner, Charles,--1811-1874
- - Toombs, Robert Augustus,--1810-1885
- - United States.--Congress.--Senate--1850-1860
- - Beating--1850-1860
- Political cartoons--1850-1860.
- Political cartoons--1850-1860
- - Caption label from exhibit "American Treasures Memory": Arguments of the Chivalry. This dramatic print shows a violent incident that occurred in Congress on May 22, 1856, which inflamed sectional passion. The artist recreates the severe beating of Massachusetts Senator Charles Sumner by Representative Preston S. Brooks of South Carolina. Brooks (right) is standing over Sumner (seated), and Rep. Lawrence M. Keitt stands (center) raising his cane against possible intervention, while holding a pistol. In the foreground are Georgia Senator Robert Toombs (far left with hat) and Illinois Senator Stephen A Douglas (hands in pockets), looking vindicated by the event.
- - Probably printed by John H. Bufford, Boston.
- - Signed with monogram: WH (Winslow Homer).
- - Title appears as it is written on the item.
- - Tatham, "Pictorial Responses to the Caning of Senator Sumner," p. 15-16.
- - Forms part of: American cartoon print filing series (Library of Congress)
- - Published in: American political prints, 1766-1876 / Bernard F. Reilly. Boston : G.K. Hall, 1991, entry 1856-1.
- - Exhibited: American Treasures of the Library of Congress.
- 1 print : lithograph on wove paper ; 36.9 x 51.8 cm. (image)
Call Number/Physical Location
- PC/US - 1856.H644, no. 1 (B size) [P&P]
- American cartoon print filing series (Library of Congress)
- Library of Congress Prints and Photographs Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/pp.print
- cph 3a39197 //hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3a39197
- cph 3g12985 //hdl.loc.gov/loc.pnp/cph.3g12985
Library of Congress Control Number
- LC-USZ62-38851 (b&w film copy neg.) LC-USZC4-12985 (color film copy transparency)
- No known restrictions on publication.
Additional Metadata Formats
Rights & Access
The Library of Congress does not own rights to material in its collections. Therefore, it does not license or charge permission fees for use of such material and cannot grant or deny permission to publish or otherwise distribute the material.
Ultimately, it is the researcher's obligation to assess copyright or other use restrictions and obtain permission from third parties when necessary before publishing or otherwise distributing materials found in the Library's collections.
For information about reproducing, publishing, and citing material from this collection, as well as access to the original items, see: American Cartoon Print Filing Series - Rights and Restrictions Information
- Rights Advisory: No known restrictions on publication.
- Reproduction Number: LC-USZ62-38851 (b&w film copy neg.) LC-USZC4-12985 (color film copy transparency)
- Call Number: PC/US - 1856.H644, no. 1 (B size) [P&P]
- Access Advisory: ---
If an image is displaying, you can download it yourself. (Some images display only as thumbnails outside the Library of Congress because of rights considerations, but you have access to larger size images on site.)
Alternatively, you can purchase copies of various types through Library of Congress Duplication Services.
- If a digital image is displaying: The qualities of the digital image partially depend on whether it was made from the original or an intermediate such as a copy negative or transparency. If the Reproduction Number field above includes a reproduction number that starts with LC-DIG..., then there is a digital image that was made directly from the original and is of sufficient resolution for most publication purposes.
If there is information listed in the Reproduction Number field above:
You can use the reproduction number to purchase a copy from Duplication Services. It will be
made from the source listed in the parentheses after the number.
If only black-and-white ("b&w") sources are listed and you desire a copy showing color or tint (assuming the original has any), you can generally purchase a quality copy of the original in color by citing the Call Number listed above and including the catalog record ("About This Item") with your request.
- If there is no information listed in the Reproduction Number field above: You can generally purchase a quality copy through Duplication Services. Cite the Call Number listed above and include the catalog record ("About This Item") with your request.
Price lists, contact information, and order forms are available on the Duplication Services Web site.
Access to Originals
Please use the following steps to determine whether you need to fill out a call slip in the Prints and Photographs Reading Room to view the original item(s). In some cases, a surrogate (substitute image) is available, often in the form of a digital image, a copy print, or microfilm.
Is the item digitized? (A thumbnail (small) image will be visible on the left.)
Yes, the item is digitized.
Please use the digital image in preference to requesting the original. All images can be
viewed at a large size when you are in any reading room at the Library of Congress. In some
cases, only thumbnail (small) images are available when you are outside the Library of
Congress because the item is rights restricted or has not been evaluated for rights
As a preservation measure, we generally do not serve an original item when a digital image is available. If you have a compelling reason to see the original, consult with a reference librarian. (Sometimes, the original is simply too fragile to serve. For example, glass and film photographic negatives are particularly subject to damage. They are also easier to see online where they are presented as positive images.)
- No, the item is not digitized. Please go to #2.
- Yes, the item is digitized. Please use the digital image in preference to requesting the original. All images can be viewed at a large size when you are in any reading room at the Library of Congress. In some cases, only thumbnail (small) images are available when you are outside the Library of Congress because the item is rights restricted or has not been evaluated for rights restrictions.
Do the Access Advisory or Call Number fields above indicate that a non-digital surrogate exists, such as microfilm or copy prints?
- Yes, another surrogate exists. Reference staff can direct you to this surrogate.
- No, another surrogate does not exist. Please go to #3.
- If you do not see a thumbnail image or a reference to another surrogate, please fill out a call slip in the Prints and Photographs Reading Room. In many cases, the originals can be served in a few minutes. Other materials require appointments for later the same day or in the future. Reference staff can advise you in both how to fill out a call slip and when the item can be served.
To contact Reference staff in the Prints and Photographs Reading Room, please use our Ask A Librarian service or call the reading room between 8:30 and 5:00 at 202-707-6394, and Press 3.
Cite This Item
Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.
Chicago citation style:
Bufford, John Henry, and Winslow Homer. Arguments of the Chivalry. , 1856. Photograph. https://www.loc.gov/item/2008661576/.
APA citation style:
Bufford, J. H. & Homer, W. (1856) Arguments of the Chivalry. , 1856. [Photograph] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/2008661576/.
MLA citation style:
Bufford, John Henry, and Winslow Homer. Arguments of the Chivalry. Photograph. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <www.loc.gov/item/2008661576/>.