Book/Printed Material Ge zhi cao : liu juan 格致草 : 六卷 /

[ Preface/Table of Contents ]

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[ Volume 1 ]
[ Volume 2 ]
[ Volume 3 ]

About this Item

Title
Ge zhi cao : liu juan
Other Title
格致草 : 六卷 /
Summary
Presented here is a set of two works by Xiong Mingyu and his son Xiong Renlin, in six juan in two volumes. This copy was printed in the fifth year (1648) of the Shunzhi reign of the Qing dynasty by their relative Xiong Zhixue at Tanyang Shulin. As Xiong Mingyu's work Ge zhi cao (A draft on investigation of things) discusses heaven, while Xiong Renlin's Di wei (Latitudes of the earth) is on the earth, this set was given the title Han yu tong (Cosmology) by Xiong Zhixue. Xiong Mingyu (1579-1649), courtesy name Liangru, received his jin shi degree in 1598. Among his various posts, he was minister of the Bureau of Justice, the Bureau of Military Affairs, and the Bureau of Works. He had written an earlier work, Ze cao (A draft of regularity), in the late-Wanli reign (1573-1620), which he revised as Ge zhi cao and completed during the Chongzhen reign (1628-44), a total of 50 years of work on the subject. As, on the one hand, it reflected the author's knowledge of Western science on astronomy and the calendar, and, on the other hand, Xiong had enjoyed a high reputation among the adherents of the Ming dynasty, this work was greatly appreciated. According to Xiong's preface, the revised and expanded work Ge zhi cao was printed at Huarilou. The original inscription reads: "Written by Xiong Mingyu, Liangru, of Jinxian." It has six juan in 56 sections and 185 leaves. Juan 1 discusses the basic principles of motions of the heavens and the earth. Juan 2 records the laws of the celestial moon and stars. Juan 3 contains the calendar and debates the ancient absurdities. Juan 4 and juan 5 analyze the changes in nature, based on Western scientific principles, and they explain the reasons for some historical calamities. Juan 6 explains the theory of the creation, including a section on God creating heaven and earth in six days. His son Xiong Renlin's Di wei (Latitudes of the earth) was first printed in the 11th year (1638) of the Chongzhen reign. Xiong Renlin achieved his jin shi degree in 1637, and held the post of vice minister of the Court of Imperial Sacrifices. The work has 84 sections. Some 80 percent of the text derives from Jesuit astronomer Giulio Aleni's work Zhi fang wai ji (A chronicle of foreign lands). It also draws on Ming author Wang Zongzai's Si yi guan kao (A study of the Translators' Bureau of the Four Barbarian Languages), Zhang Xie's Dong Xi yang kao (A study of the East and West), and other works. Xiong Renlin was unfamiliar with the usual transliteration, thus corrections or additions are inaccurate. Both Xiong Mingyu and his son were familiar with Western science. Xiong Mingyu had a prolonged interest in Western learning and contributed to several works by prominent missionaries in China. He was one of the scholars who edited some books by Portuguese Jesuit Emmanuel Diaz (1574-1659) including Tian wen lue (A treatise on Ptolemaic astronomy), and he contributed a preface to a work by Italian Jesuit Sabatino de Ursis (1575-1620). World Digital Library.
The section concerning astronomy in the text was printed shortly after the introduction of Western astronomy to China; volume 1 concerned the principles of movement of stars; volume 2 introduced the orbits of the sun, moon, planets and stars; volume 3 concerned calendars; volumes 4 and 5 analyzed natural changes, natural disasters and strange phenomena based on Western theories; volume 6 concerned universal development and harmony; reviewed by nine colleagues of the author; completed ca. 1615; printed ca. fifty years later, during the Sunzhi Period (1638-1661); the maps were printed in 1638; the depiction of the Western cannon is an indication that the item was published during the Kangxi Period (1662-1722).
Contributor Names
Xiong, Mingyou, 1579-1649, zhu.
Xiong, Renlin, jin shi 1637.
Chinese Rare Book Collection (Library of Congress).
Created / Published
[China : s.n.], Qing Shunzhi 5 nian [1648]
Notes
-  Also available in digital form.
-  《格致草》九行十八字 小字雙行十八字; 《地緯》八行十八字. Ge zhi cao, text, nine lines, with eighteen characters per line, and small characters in paired lines of eighteen characters per line; Di wei, maps, eight lines, with eighteen characters per line.
-  二冊,與《地緯》合裝一函. Two volumes, with maps, in one case.
-  地緯 一卷 清順治間刻函宇通本 二冊與 格致草 合裝一函 八行十八字。 原題:「進賢熊人霖伯甘著。」按進賢縣志:「人霖字伯甘,明遇子。崇禎十年進士,官至太常寺少卿。」是書禁書總目違碍書目並著錄。據自序,初刻於崇禎十一年,此是翻本,如紅夷砲改作紅彝砲,頁八十一。則疑為康熙間刷印時所改者矣。凡例後題:「天啟甲子歲著於竹里」,李之藻校刻職方外紀之次年也。全書凡八十四篇,十之八鈔撮外紀,十之二採自四夷館孜東西洋孜等書。人霖不諳譯音,所删所補,未能盡確,其學識蓋在乃父下。如既據外紀撰則意蘭志,又於荒服諸小國載錫蘭山,不知則意蘭即錫蘭。荒服諸小國既忽魯漠斯,又載忽魯母思。既依外紀在歐洲撰拂郎察志稱:「世所傳弗郎機,名從主人」云云,又依明季人著述,在亞洲撰佛郎機志。若斯之類,皆由未能豁然貫通。然因其所託者厚,較明季人此類者述,猶能較勝一等也。自序.
-  格致草 六卷 清順治間刻函宇通本 二冊與地緯合裝一函 九行十八字。 原題:「進賢熊明遇良孺著。」明遇萬曆二十九年進士,官止南京工部尚書。事蹟具明史卷二百五十七本傳。孜建陽縣志流庽傳有明遇傳,稱:「明季明遇父子避閩,寓崇泰里熊屯,五載回籍盡節死。」按是書節度定紀節:「今歲戊子,避地潭陽山中」云云,則入閩蓋在清順治五年,若建陽縣志之言為可信,是順治十年明遇方還原籍,應亦壽考人矣。天學初函本天問略,題友人熊明遇等九人校閱,是明遇與陽瑪諾為友,且校閱其所著書。於四學有直傳,故是書詆周子愚以「天老日行遲陽漸衰」釋歲差,為「拘世儒腐說」也。是書凡分六卷五十六節,凡一百八十五葉,其分六卷者,以卷內所標書題知之。卷一論天地運行定理。卷二記天體日月星辰軌度。卷三論曆並辨古說之不經者。卷四卷五依西洋科學原理,辨析自然界變化,與歷史上所載災異,如風雲雷雨之所由成,「天河探穀價」按此指七夕天河何以光澹之傳說。「塔放光」之何以故。卷六論天地之所由成,大造畸說一節,全述上帝六日造成天地之事,而謂為「畸說」,則以明遇信四士之科學,而存疑其宗教理論也。每節之後,附載中土先賢論說,其有與西說合者,題曰格言考信;其不合科學原理者,題曰渺論存疑蓋自萬曆間西士以天算之說入中國,國人真能融會貫通者,徐李王徵數輩,允屬先驅;熊氏父子,以教外人而遊其教中,以科學頭腦而習其科學,所得之深,有非餘子之所能及者。祗以其書不傳,致姓氏未列疇人傳內。卷端有潭陽書林熊志學序云: 「格致草初名則草,成於萬曆時,後廣之為今書,刻於華日樓,海內宗之。而分至金水諸論,則今戊子考測乃定。」按列象恒論自注云:「余向著則草」,又氣行變化演說自注云:「偶於篋中得二十五年前一舊稿,蓋需次給事之命,閒暇中與四方諸儒極其推論者。」孜明遇擢兵科給事中在萬曆四十三年,蓋已始撰則草,直至崇禎曆書頒行,始稍稍寫定。順治初避地潭陽,又增入數事,歷五十年而後成書。熊志學以與其子人霖所撰地緯合刻,格致草言天,地緯言地,故題日函宇通。志學所作序,文頗爾雅,不似書林中人;疑以避地,遂記之云爾。熊志學函宇通序順治五年 (1648),自序.
-  清順治五年潭陽書林熊志學《函宇通》刻本. Woodblock print carved in 1648, based on the version of 'Han yu tong' by Xiong Zhixue.
Medium
2 v. : ill., maps
Library of Congress Control Number
2012402250
Online Format
image
LCCN Permalink
https://lccn.loc.gov/2012402250
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Chicago citation style:

Xiong, Mingyou, Zhu, Renlin Xiong, and Chinese Rare Book Collection. Ge Zhi Cao: Liu Juan. [China: s.n., Qing Shunzhi 5 nian, 1648] Image. https://www.loc.gov/item/2012402250/.

APA citation style:

Xiong, M., Xiong, R. & Chinese Rare Book Collection. (1648) Ge Zhi Cao: Liu Juan. [China: s.n., Qing Shunzhi 5 nian] [Image] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/2012402250/.

MLA citation style:

Xiong, Mingyou, Zhu, Renlin Xiong, and Chinese Rare Book Collection. Ge Zhi Cao: Liu Juan. [China: s.n., Qing Shunzhi 5 nian, 1648] Image. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <www.loc.gov/item/2012402250/>.

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