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Photo, Print, Drawing Di︠e︡ti Kariĭskago prii︠u︡ta. Дѣти Карiйскаго прiюта.

About this Item


  • Di︠e︡ti Kariĭskago prii︠u︡ta.

Other Title

  • Дѣти Карiйскаго прiюта.

Translated Title

  • Children at the Kara Orphanage.


  • This photograph is one of 74 views taken in July 1891 by Aleksei Kirillovich Kuznetsov (1845-1928) and contained in the albumTipy i vidy Nerchinskoi katorgi(Views and inhabitants of Nerchinsk hard labor camps). The Nerchinskkatorgawas part of the katorga (forced labor) system of imperial Russia, located in the province of Transbaikalia (present-day Zabaykal'skiy Kray), near the Russian border with China. The katorga was administered by the Ministry of Interior and included prisons at Akatuy, Kara, Aleksandrovsk, Nerchinskii Zavod, and Zerentuy, all of which are depicted in the album. Common criminals and political prisoners alike were sent to these camps to work the nearby mines and their associated smelting plants. Gold was chiefly mined at Kara, silver and lead at Akatuy. Kuznetsov himself was a political prisoner, sentenced in 1873 to permanent exile in Siberia and six years of hard labor at the Kara mines. After completing his sentence, Kuznetsov received permission to settle in Nerchinsk, where he founded a local cultural society. In 1889 it moved to Chita. It is not clear how he received permission to visit the prisons of the Nerchinsk katorga and to create this graphic record of the prisoners and the conditions in which they lived and worked. The album is held by the National Library of Russia in Saint Petersburg and was digitized for the Meeting of Frontiers digital library project in the early 2000s. World Digital Library.


  • Kuznetsov, A. K., 1845-1928, photographer.

Created / Published

  • Nerchinsk : [publisher not identified], 1891.


  • -  photographs
  • -  1891
  • -  penal servitude
  • -  hard labor
  • -  Nerchinsk mines
  • -  Children
  • -  Convict labor
  • -  Exiles
  • -  Group portraits
  • -  Orphanages
  • -  Orphans
  • -  Prisoners
  • -  Russian Federation
  • -  Zabaykalsky Krai
  • -  Nizhnyaya Kara


  • -  Like women, children of convicts and exiles faced difficult conditions both in marching convoys on the way to Siberia and in places of exile. It is estimated that half of all children died because of hunger, cold, and lack of medical care on the way to locations of exile. Many children were sexually abused by convicts both in the convoys and in locations of exile.
  • -  List iz alʹboma "Tipy i vidy Nerchinskoĭ katorgi", No. 13.
  • -  Original image at: National Library of Russia
  • -  From the photo album "Типы и виды Нерчинской каторги."
  • -  Лист из альбома "Типы и виды Нерчинской каторги", No. 13.


  • 1 photograph ; 18 x 24.5 cm.

Source Collection

  • Views of the Nerchinsk Hard Labor Camps

Digital Id

Library of Congress Control Number

  • 2018691443

Online Format

  • image

Additional Metadata Formats

IIIF Presentation Manifest

Rights & Access

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Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Kuznetsov, A. K, photographer. Di︠e︡ti Kariĭskago prii︠u︡ta. Zabaykalsky Krai Nizhnyaya Kara Russian Federation, 1891. [Nerchinsk: Publisher Not Identified] Photograph.

APA citation style:

Kuznetsov, A. K., photographer. (1891) Di︠e︡ti Kariĭskago prii︠u︡ta. Zabaykalsky Krai Nizhnyaya Kara Russian Federation, 1891. [Nerchinsk: Publisher Not Identified] [Photograph] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

Kuznetsov, A. K, photographer. Di︠e︡ti Kariĭskago prii︠u︡ta. [Nerchinsk: Publisher Not Identified] Photograph. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.