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About this Item


  • Qur'anic verses

Created / Published

  • 15th century


  • -  Calligraphy, Arabic
  • -  Calligraphy, Persian
  • -  Manuscripts, Arabic--Washington (D.C.)
  • -  Iran
  • -  Afghanistan
  • -  Uzbekistan
  • -  Tajikistan
  • -  Arabic script calligraphy
  • -  Illuminated Islamic manuscripts
  • -  Islamic calligraphy
  • -  Islamic manuscripts
  • -  Muhaqqaq


  • -  Quranic page in the Muhaqqaq script in the "Baysunghur" style, made either in Herat or Samarqand ca. 1400 A.D.
  • -  [How will God guide those who reject faith] after they accepted it and bore witness that the Messenger was true? (3:86)
  • -  Dimensions of Written Surface: 20.7 (h) x 36.2 (w) cm
  • -  In its simplicity and grandeur, it recalls the famous "Baysunghur" Qur'an made either in Herat or Samarqand ca. 1400 A.D., which contained gigantic folios measuring 177 x 101 cm with writing only on their rectos (James 1992b: 18-23 and cat. no. 2). Although a fraction of the latter's size and with writing on its verso, this fragment achieves a dignity that harks back to the "Baysunghur" Qur'an. For this reason, these Qur'anic fragments may have been executed during the early 15th century, perhaps in Persia or Central Asia.
  • -  The ayah marker in the lower band consists of a gold roundel composed of concentric circles outlined in dark brown ink. Three words (min ba'd dhalika, "thereafter") were omitted from the original text and have been added in smaller script immediately above the main line of text. The text on each panel's verso can be seen through the paper.
  • -  The lower band warns of the punishment of men who launch a false charge of adultery against chaste women, unless they seek forgiveness from God:
  • -  These two fragments, pasted together onto a single sheet, certainly come from the same Qur'an --indeed the same portion of the book (ca. verses 86-89) of Surat Al 'Imran--executed in a fine muhaqqaq script. Theses verses survive on another fragment in the Library of Congress (1-89-154.172 R &V). Judging from the height (10 cm) of each panel containing a single line of text, the original manuscript must have been of a large size (perhaps ca. 50 cm in height at 5 lines of text/page).
  • -  This calligraphic fragment includes two separate horizontal panels cut out and pasted onto a cardboard backing. The upper band contains verse 86 of the 3rd chapter of the Qur'an entitled Al 'Imran (The Family of 'Imran) and the lower band includes verse 89 of the same chapter. The lower band does not contain Q 24:5 (as per Selim 1979, 170), although Q 24:5 does resemble closely Q 3:89. The upper band belongs to a surah that asks Muslims to hold together in harmony and friendship, and reads:
  • -  Unless they repent thereafter and mend [their conduct, for God is Forgiving and Merciful]. (3:89)
  • -  Script: Muhaqqaq
  • -  1-88-154.34


  • 1 volume ; 20.7 (h) x 36.2 (w) cm


  • Library of Congress African and Middle Eastern Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Digital Id

Library of Congress Control Number

  • 2019714486

Online Format

  • pdf
  • image

Additional Metadata Formats

IIIF Presentation Manifest

Rights & Access

The contents of the Library of Congress Selections of Arabic, Persian, and Ottoman Calligraphy are in the public domain or have no known copyright restrictions and are free to use and reuse.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, African and Middle East Division, Near East Section Persian Manuscript Collection

Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Qur'anic Verses. 15th Century. Manuscript/Mixed Material.

APA citation style:

Qur'anic Verses. 15th Century. [Manuscript/Mixed Material] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

Qur'anic Verses. 15th Century. Manuscript/Mixed Material. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.