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About this Item


  • Qur'anic verses

Created / Published

  • 14th century


  • -  Calligraphy, Arabic
  • -  Calligraphy, Persian
  • -  Manuscripts, Arabic--Washington (D.C.)
  • -  Iran
  • -  Arabic script calligraphy
  • -  Illuminated Islamic manuscripts
  • -  Islamic calligraphy
  • -  Islamic manuscripts
  • -  Persian naskh
  • -  Tawqi'


  • -  Qur'anic verses, Arabic text is Tawqi' script and Persian translations are in Persian naskh.
  • -  And how will God guide those who reject faith / After they accepted it and bore witness / That the Messenger was true / And that clear signs had come to them? / God does not guide unjust people.
  • -  Between each horizontal line of Arabic text appear diagonal word-by-word translations into Persian. Unlike similar interlinear Qur'ans that tend to include a Persian translation in red ink (James 1992a: 56-7, cat. no. 10), this particular fragment makes no color differentiation between the Arabic original and its Persian rendition immediately below.
  • -  Dimensions of Written Surface: 16.5 (w) x 29 (h) cm
  • -  In the middle of the right margin appears a section (juz') marker made of a gold central flower, a blue concentric circle, and a circle of radiating gold lines. In the upper left margin appears a (juz') marker shaped like a hanging lamp. It contains a palmette motif outlined in dark brown ink on a gold ground. The verse markers in the text consist of gold flowers with red dots between each petal. All diacritical marks are executed in black ink except for the sukun (showing lack of a vowel), which sometimes appears as a small hollow red circle.
  • -  In this fragment, the script used for the Arabic text is tawqi' while the Persian translations are written in a Persian naskh. Tawqi' is similar to thuluth but smaller and with systematic assimilations between letters ordinarily not joined. For example, line four (verse 90) includes the word al-dalun ("those who have gone astray") with the alif and lam (a and l) attached by a playful upturned loop.
  • -  The verses on the verso continue those found on the fragment's recto. Verse 89, which also appears cut out and preserved on another calligraphic panel in the Library of Congress (1-88-154.34, lower horizontal) encourages seeking forgiveness from God:
  • -  This fragment follows the pattern set by Persian Qur'ans produced during the Ilkhanid period (see 1-84-154.27c R & V). It thus can be suggested that this Qur'an dates from the 14th century and was probably made in Iran. Unlike this fragment, later interlinear Persian Qur'ans tend to translate the Arabic text continuously (not word-by-word) in a horizontal (not diagonal) written space (see 1-85-154.67 R & V).
  • -  This Qur'anic fragment includes verses 85-88 of the 3rd chapter of the Qur'an entitled Al 'Imran (The Family of 'Imran). The continuation of these verses appears on the fragment's verso (1-89-154.172 V). In this particular surah, all people are invited to accept Islam, while Muslims in particular are encouraged to seek friendship and security within their communities. Verse 86 asks the question:
  • -  Unless they repent thereafter and mend their conduct, / for God is Forgiving and Merciful.
  • -  Script: Tawqi' and Persian naskh
  • -  1-89-154.172


  • 1 volume ; 22 (w) x 33.9 (h) cm


  • Library of Congress African and Middle Eastern Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Digital Id

Library of Congress Control Number

  • 2019714489

Online Format

  • pdf
  • image

Additional Metadata Formats

IIIF Presentation Manifest

Rights & Access

The contents of the Library of Congress Selections of Arabic, Persian, and Ottoman Calligraphy are in the public domain or have no known copyright restrictions and are free to use and reuse.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, African and Middle East Division, Near East Section Persian Manuscript Collection

Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Qur'anic Verses. 14th Century. Manuscript/Mixed Material.

APA citation style:

Qur'anic Verses. 14th Century. [Manuscript/Mixed Material] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

Qur'anic Verses. 14th Century. Manuscript/Mixed Material. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.