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About this Item


  • Qur'anic verses

Created / Published

  • 11th-12th centuries


  • -  Calligraphy, Arabic
  • -  Manuscripts, Arabic--Washington (D.C.)
  • -  Iraq
  • -  Arabic script calligraphy
  • -  Illuminated Islamic manuscripts
  • -  Islamic calligraphy
  • -  Islamic manuscripts
  • -  Kufi


  • -  Kufi script in brown ink on parchment, typical of Qur'ans produced in Iraq and Persia during the 11th and 12th.
  • -  Although substantially faded today, vocalization marks executed as red dots are visible both above and below the main text lines. Verse markers are rather indistinguishable, as they are very small and also executed in brown ink. They consist of three diagonal lines diminishing in size in order to create a triangular formation. The tenth verse marker separating verse 50 from 51, located on the fourth line from the bottom on this folio, stands out as it consists of a simple virgule inscribed in a plain circle.
  • -  Dimensions of Written Surface: 26.2 (w) x 35.9 (h) cm
  • -  The Kufi script executed in brown ink on this parchment fragment recalls Kufi "New Style I" typical of Qur'ans produced in Iraq and Persia during the 11th and 12th centuries (Déroche 1992, cat. no. 90), although by this time Qur'ans tend to be produced on paper rather than vellum or parchment. This kind of script is angular, and letters that should be connected by ligatures are oftentimes detached, thus making the text difficult to decipher.
  • -  The verso of this calligraphic fragment includes the last verses of the Surat al-Rum, as well as the first four verses of the subsequent chapter, Surat Luqman (31:1-4). Surat Luqman advises righteousness and wisdom. This surah states:
  • -  This calligraphic fragment includes some of the terminal verses (43-53) of the 30th chapter of the Qur'an entitled Surat al-Rum (The Romans). The last seven verses (53-60) of this chapter, as well as the first four verses of the next chapter (31:1-4), appear on the fragment's verso (see 1-85-154.101 V). This chapter deals with world power, as symbolized by the Persian and Roman empires, and the Day of Judgment. The surah advises here:
  • -  Those who establish regular prayer / And give regular charity / And have in their hearts the assurance of the Hereafter / These are on true guidance from their Lord / And these are the ones who will prosper. (31:4-5).
  • -  Turn your face to the right religion / Before there comes from God / The day which there is no chance of averting. / On that day men will be divided (in two groups). / Those who reject faith / Will suffer from that rejection; / And those who work righteousness / Will spread their couch (of repose) for themselves in Heaven. (30:43-44)
  • -  Unfortunately, this fragment has suffered through the wear of usage -- as witnessed by the creases running horizontally and vertically across the folio -- and water damage, which has smeared the letters both at the top and bottom of this fragment.
  • -  Script: Kufi
  • -  1-85-154.101


  • 1 volume ; 34.5 (w) x 40.5 (h) cm


  • Library of Congress African and Middle Eastern Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Digital Id

Library of Congress Control Number

  • 2019714508

Online Format

  • pdf
  • image

Additional Metadata Formats

IIIF Presentation Manifest

Rights & Access

The contents of the Library of Congress Selections of Arabic, Persian, and Ottoman Calligraphy are in the public domain or have no known copyright restrictions and are free to use and reuse.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, African and Middle East Division, Near East Section Persian Manuscript Collection

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Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Qur'anic Verses. 11th-12th Centuries. Manuscript/Mixed Material.

APA citation style:

Qur'anic Verses. 11th-12th Centuries. [Manuscript/Mixed Material] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

Qur'anic Verses. 11th-12th Centuries. Manuscript/Mixed Material. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.