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About this Item


  • Qur'anic verses

Created / Published

  • 11th- 13th centuries


  • -  Calligraphy, Arabic
  • -  Manuscripts, Arabic--Washington (D.C.)
  • -  Iraq
  • -  Iran
  • -  Arabic script calligraphy
  • -  Illuminated Islamic manuscripts
  • -  Islamic calligraphy
  • -  Islamic manuscripts
  • -  Kufi
  • -  Naskh
  • -  Qur'anic verses


  • -  Qur'anic verses in Kufi and Naskh script Qur'ans and typical produced in Iraq and Persia during the 11th-13th centuries.
  • -  Dimensions of Written Surface: Recto: 6 (w) x 12.2 (h) cm. Dimensions of Written Surface: Verso: 6.3 (w) x 11.5 (h) cm
  • -  The chapter's text is executed in an early naskh (cursive) script, will full vocalization in black ink and other orthographical markers -- such as the doubling of a consonant (tashdid) -- picked out in red ink. Verse markers consist of six-petalled gold rosettes with red dots on their perimeters. The combination of Kufi script for chapter headings and early naskh script for the text proper appears in Qur'ans produced in Iraq and Persia during the 11th-13th centuries (Lings and Safadi 1976, cat nos. 55 and 57).
  • -  The surah's heading at the top of the left side of the fragment is written in Kufi script typical of some of the earliest extant Qur'an manuscripts. The heading, which gives the title of the chapter and its number of verses (mistakenly 51 rather than 52), is written out in a subtractive method whereby the plain folio's beige color shows through the illuminated panel and the letters' black outlines. The illuminated panel, decorated with blue and white leaf motifs, bears a palmette that jets out into the left margin. This kind of panel -- called a tabula ansata after its Roman prototype -- is also typical of early Qur'ans of the 9th century (Lings and Safadi 1976, cat. no. 10). The remaining portion of text that belongs to the chapter heading, i.e., "revealed in Mecca" (nuzilat bi-Makkah), is executed in gold ink between two rectangles located in the center of the folio's left margin.
  • -  This Qur'anic fragment includes, on the left side, the surah heading and first two verses of the 14th chapter of the Qur'an entitled Surat Ibrahim (Abraham). On the right side appear verses 6-7 of the same surah, a continuation of the chapter's previous verses (2-6) present on the folio's verso (see 1-84-154.24 V). Combined, the fragment's recto and verso provide the title and first seven verses of Surat Ibrahim, which discuss how each nation received its own prophet to deliver God's message. In verses 5-6, Moses is heralded as a prophet who brought the knowledge of God to his people and delivered them from Pharaoh.
  • -  Script: naskh and Kufi
  • -  1-84-154.24


  • 1 volume ; 21.7 (w) x 17.3 (h) cm


  • Library of Congress African and Middle Eastern Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Digital Id

Library of Congress Control Number

  • 2019714588

Online Format

  • pdf
  • image

Additional Metadata Formats

IIIF Presentation Manifest

Rights & Access

The contents of the Library of Congress Selections of Arabic, Persian, and Ottoman Calligraphy are in the public domain or have no known copyright restrictions and are free to use and reuse.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, African and Middle East Division, Near East Section Persian Manuscript Collection

Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Qur'anic Verses. 11th- 13th Centuries. Manuscript/Mixed Material.

APA citation style:

Qur'anic Verses. 11th- 13th Centuries. [Manuscript/Mixed Material] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

Qur'anic Verses. 11th- 13th Centuries. Manuscript/Mixed Material. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.