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About this Item


  • Qur'anic verses

Created / Published

  • 10th century


  • -  Calligraphy, Arabic
  • -  Manuscripts, Arabic--Washington (D.C.)
  • -  Iraq
  • -  Syria
  • -  Arabic script calligraphy
  • -  Illuminated Islamic manuscripts
  • -  Islamic calligraphy
  • -  Islamic manuscripts
  • -  Kufi
  • -  Qur'anic verses


  • -  Qur'anic verses 62-64 of the 24th chapter of the Qur'an entitled al-Nur (The Light), written in Kufi script (New Style I) from 10th century.
  • -  Blessed is He Who sent down the Criterion to His servant, / So that it may be a warning to all creatures. (25:1)
  • -  Dimensions of Written Surface: Recto: 6.3 (w) x 9.2 (h) cm. Dimensions of Written Surface: Verso: 6.5 (w) x 9.3 (h) cm
  • -  Only those are believers who trust in God and His Messenger. / When they are with him on a matter requiring collective action, / They do not depart until they have asked for his leave. (24:62)
  • -  Surat al-Furqan is an early Meccan chapter containing 77 verses. It uses the contrast between light and darkness as a metaphor for knowledge and ignorance, virtue and sin. God has sent forth in His revelation certain measures by which man can distinguish between right and wrong:
  • -  Surat al-Nur describes domestic and public matters, and how communal life contributes to man's virtues and his spiritual journey towards God:
  • -  The text is executed in Kufi script (New Style I), in which vocalization is indicated by red dots. Only a few orthoepic (pronunciation) marks executed in black ink, such as the tashdid (duplication of a consonant) and tanwin (nunnation, or pronunciation of the letter "n"), appear to have been added at a later date. The script, lack of diacritics, and vertical format typify Qur'ans produced during the 10th century (see Déroche 1992: 142-143, cat. no. 78).
  • -  This calligraphic fragment includes verses 62-64 of the 24th chapter of the Qur'an entitled al-Nur (The Light). The text of this surah ends on the fragment's verso (1-84-154.29b V), which also contains the illuminated heading and first three verses of the subsequent (25th) chapter of the Qur'an entitled al-Furqan (The Criterion).
  • -  Verse markers consist of gold flowers decorated with a gold center. Unfortunately, a small portion of the text has been lost in the center right due to a hole in the parchment.
  • -  Script: Kufi
  • -  1-84-154.29b


  • 1 volume ; 10.9 (w) x 15.1 (h) cm


  • Library of Congress African and Middle Eastern Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Digital Id

Library of Congress Control Number

  • 2019714592

Online Format

  • pdf
  • image

Additional Metadata Formats

IIIF Presentation Manifest

Rights & Access

The contents of the Library of Congress Selections of Arabic, Persian, and Ottoman Calligraphy are in the public domain or have no known copyright restrictions and are free to use and reuse.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, African and Middle East Division, Near East Section Persian Manuscript Collection

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Chicago citation style:

Qur'anic Verses. 10th Century. Manuscript/Mixed Material.

APA citation style:

Qur'anic Verses. 10th Century. [Manuscript/Mixed Material] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

Qur'anic Verses. 10th Century. Manuscript/Mixed Material. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.