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Manuscript/Mixed Material Qur'anic Chapters 1 and 114

About this Item


  • Qur'anic Chapters 1 and 114

Created / Published

  • 18th-19th centuries


  • -  Calligraphy, Arabic
  • -  Calligraphy, Persian
  • -  Manuscripts, Arabic--Washington (D.C.)
  • -  Iran
  • -  Arabic script calligraphy
  • -  Illuminated Islamic manuscripts
  • -  Islamic calligraphy
  • -  Islamic manuscripts
  • -  Qur'anic verses
  • -  Shikastah


  • -  Qur'anic Chapters 1 and 114 written in fine shikastah (literally, "broken") script during the 18th-19th centuries in Iran.
  • -  Below the Fatihah appears one of the shortest chapters of the Qur'an entitled Surat al-Nas (Mankind). It praises God as the Lord of Mankind (Malak al-Nas) and as the Protector from Satan (literally, the "Whisperer"):
  • -  Dimensions of Written Surface: 9.2 (w) x 14.5 (h) cm
  • -  In the name of God, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. / Praise be to God, the Lord of the worlds; / The Most Gracious, the Most Merciful; / Master of the Day of Judgment (yawm al-din). / You do we worship, and Your aid do we seek. / Show us the straight way, / The way of those on whom You have bestowed Your Grace, those whose (portion) is not wrath, and who go not astray.
  • -  Say, I seek refuge with the Lord and Cherisher of Mankind, / the King of Mankind, / The God of Mankind, / From the mischief of the Whisperer (al-waswas) who withdraws / And who whispers in the hearts of mankind among the spirits and men.
  • -  These two short surahs from the Qur'an appear together here probably because they are short, easily memorized, and recited aloud. It is quite unusual, however, to find Qur'anic verses executed in shikastah, a very fluid script invented in Persia (Iran) by the 18th-century calligrapher Darvish 'Abd al-Majid al-Taliqani (Tavoosi 1987: 34-35). During the 18th and 19th centuries, Qur'ans were written in naskh or nasta'liq, as these scripts were more legible than shikastah. For this reason, this particular fragment stands out as scarce proof that some Qur'anic ayahs were executed in shikastah in Iran during the 18th-19th centuries.
  • -  This calligraphic fragment is executed in fine shikastah (literally, "broken") script and includes an initial bismillah and chapters (surahs) 1 and 114 of the Qur'an. At the top appears the first chapter of the Qur'an, entitled al-Fatihah (The Opening). It reads:
  • -  Script: shikastah
  • -  1-84-154.55


  • 1 volume ; 20.7 (w) x 29.7 (h) cm


  • Library of Congress African and Middle Eastern Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Digital Id

Library of Congress Control Number

  • 2019714604

Online Format

  • pdf
  • image

Additional Metadata Formats

IIIF Presentation Manifest

Rights & Access

The contents of the Library of Congress Selections of Arabic, Persian, and Ottoman Calligraphy are in the public domain or have no known copyright restrictions and are free to use and reuse.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, African and Middle East Division, Near East Section Persian Manuscript Collection

Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Qur'anic Chapters 1 and 114. 18th-19th Centuries. Manuscript/Mixed Material.

APA citation style:

Qur'anic Chapters 1 and 114. 18th-19th Centuries. [Manuscript/Mixed Material] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

Qur'anic Chapters 1 and 114. 18th-19th Centuries. Manuscript/Mixed Material. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.