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Manuscript/Mixed Material Moral lesson (hikayat) on friendship

About this Item


  • Moral lesson (hikayat) on friendship

Created / Published

  • 17th-18th centuries


  • -  Calligraphy, Arabic
  • -  Calligraphy, Persian
  • -  Manuscripts, Persian--Washington (D.C.)
  • -  Iran
  • -  Arabic script calligraphy
  • -  Gulzar
  • -  Islamic calligraphy
  • -  Islamic manuscripts
  • -  Shikastah
  • -  Nasta'liq


  • -  An excerpt from Sa'di's (d. 691/1292) "Gulistan" (The Rose Garden), with anecdotal stories (hikayat), written in black Shikastah-Nasta'liq Script in 17th-18th Cent. Iran.
  • -  Calligraphic sheets written in shikastah-nasta'liq script similar to this fragment were produced in Iran during the 17th and 18th centuries.
  • -  Dimensions of Written Surface: 10.5 (w) x 13.6 (h) cm
  • -  The text is executed in black shikastah-nasta'liq on a cream-colored paper. The lines of text, which alternate diagonally, are framed by cloud bands on a gold background. The text panel is framed with red, pink, and green borders, and is pasted to a larger sheet of paper backed by cardboard. In the lower right corner of the frames appears a minute scribble, which may be the calligrapher's signature. Unfortunately, it now is illegible.
  • -  This calligraphic fragment appears to comprise an excerpt from Shaykh Sa'di's (d. 691/1292) "Gulistan" (The Rose Garden), in which he provides readers with a variety of anecdotes or stories (hikayat) with moral lessons. This text describes the anger of a king toward his servant and his desire to punish him, upon which the servant writes a letter to stress his faithfulness and to seek forgiveness. This particular story stresses the virtue of royal clemency.
  • -  Script: shikastah-nasta'liq
  • -  1-87-154.83


  • 1 volume ; 23 (w) x 32 (h) cm


  • Library of Congress African and Middle Eastern Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Digital Id

Library of Congress Control Number

  • 2019714641

Online Format

  • pdf
  • image

Additional Metadata Formats

IIIF Presentation Manifest

Rights & Access

The contents of the Library of Congress Selections of Arabic, Persian, and Ottoman Calligraphy are in the public domain or have no known copyright restrictions and are free to use and reuse.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, African and Middle East Division, Near East Section Persian Manuscript Collection

Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Moral Lesson Hikayat on Friendship. 17th-18th Centuries. Manuscript/Mixed Material.

APA citation style:

Moral Lesson Hikayat on Friendship. 17th-18th Centuries. [Manuscript/Mixed Material] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

Moral Lesson Hikayat on Friendship. 17th-18th Centuries. Manuscript/Mixed Material. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.