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Manuscript/Mixed Material Excerpt from Sa'di's "Gulistan"

About this Item


  • Excerpt from Sa'di's "Gulistan"

Created / Published

  • 17th-18th centuries


  • -  Calligraphy, Arabic
  • -  Calligraphy, Persian
  • -  Manuscripts, Persian--Washington (D.C.)
  • -  India
  • -  Arabic script calligraphy
  • -  Illuminated Islamic manuscripts
  • -  Islamic calligraphy
  • -  Islamic manuscripts
  • -  Nasta'liq


  • -  Excerpt from Sa'di's (d. 691/1292) "Gulistan" (The Rose Garden), written in black Nasta'liq script from 17th-18th cents. Mughal India.
  • -  Dimensions of Written Surface: 13 (w) x 20.3 (h) cm
  • -  The calligraphic specimen is neither dated nor signed. However, the decorative pattern and the style of the folio resemble folios inserted into albums produced during the 17th and 18th centuries in Mughal India.
  • -  The text is executed in black nasta'liq script on a beige paper. The words are framed by cloud bands and placed on a gold background decorated with the painting of a tree and various flowers. The main text panel is framed by a border containing further verses in Persian on an illuminated background. The entire composition is then provided with a number of monochromatic frames and is pasted to a larger sheet of dark blue paper decorated with gold flowers and backed by cardboard.
  • -  This calligraphic fragment includes an excerpt from Shaykh Sa'di's (d. 691/1292) "Gulistan" (The Rose Garden), in which the author offers advice (nasihat) about each man's necessities. For example, a minister (vazir) needs an army (lashgar) and eduction (tarbiyat), a farmer (ra'iyat) must observe [nature], kings need wise ministers, and brave men need weapons (silah) and horses (asp).
  • -  Script: nasta'liq
  • -  1-89-154.163


  • 1 volume ; 25.2 (w) x 35.7 (h) cm


  • Library of Congress African and Middle Eastern Division Washington, D.C. 20540 USA

Digital Id

Library of Congress Control Number

  • 2019714683

Online Format

  • pdf
  • image

Additional Metadata Formats

IIIF Presentation Manifest

Rights & Access

The contents of the Library of Congress Selections of Arabic, Persian, and Ottoman Calligraphy are in the public domain or have no known copyright restrictions and are free to use and reuse.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, African and Middle East Division, Near East Section Persian Manuscript Collection

Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Excerpt from Sa'di's "Gulistan". 17th-18th Centuries. Manuscript/Mixed Material.

APA citation style:

Excerpt from Sa'di's "Gulistan". 17th-18th Centuries. [Manuscript/Mixed Material] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

Excerpt from Sa'di's "Gulistan". 17th-18th Centuries. Manuscript/Mixed Material. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.