Show more resources (43)
About this Item
- Al-Zaura was the brainchild of the pro-Western, progressive Ottoman wali (governor) of Iraq, Midhat Pasha (reigned 1869--72). He established the newspaper when he brought with him from Paris a printing press, the first in Iraq, upon his assignment to Baghdad in 1869. Al-Zaura's name was taken from a nickname for Baghdad, literally meaning a bend or curve, as the city sits within a wide bend of the Tigris River. The paper is arguably the most important source on Iraq's history during the last 50 years of the Ottoman Empire, from Al-Zaura's inception in 1869 until Baghdad fell to the British in 1917. The paper's reformist slant, especially during Midhat Pasha's short reign, reflected his vision for modernizing Iraq, both as a country and as a society. It was a comprehensive paper, published twice weekly on Saturdays and Tuesdays, which employed some of Iraqi's leading writers and intellectuals of the time. With content in Ottoman Turkish and Arabic, it covered a wide range of domestic issues, including official decrees and appointments, health, education, crime and the courts, transportation and communication, urban development, taxation, and literature. In all, the paper appeared 2,607 times, from its first issue on Tuesday, June 15, 1869, to its last, on Tuesday, March 13, 1917. The issues have the Hijra dates on the right and the Rumi (Ottoman) calendar dates on the left. Occasional date discrepancies occur.
- Midhat Paşa, 1822-1884 Editor.
Created / Published
- Baghdad, Iraq : [publisher not identified], 1874.
- - Iraq
- - No. 422 (February 28, 1874)-No. 471 (August 18, 1874). Dates of digitized numbers from World Digital Library.
- - Title devised, in English, by Library staff.
- - Original resource at: Iraqi National Library and Archives.
- - Content in Arabic and Ottoman Turkish (1500-1928).
- - Description based on data extracted from World Digital Library, which may be extracted from partner institutions.
- 1 online resource.
- Al-Zaura Newspaper Collection
Library of Congress Control Number
- compressed data
Additional Metadata Formats
IIIF Presentation Manifest
Rights & Access
The Library of Congress is unaware of any copyright or other restrictions in the World Digital Library Collection. Absent any such restrictions, these materials are free to use and reuse. Researchers are encouraged to review the source information attached to each item. For information on contacting WDL partner organizations, see this archived list of partners
The Library asks that researchers approach the materials in this collection with respect for the culture and sensibilities of the people whose lives, ideas, and creativity are documented here.
Credit Line: [Original Source citation], World Digital Library
More about Copyright and other Restrictions
For additional information and contact information for many of the partner organizations, see this archived capture of the World Digital Library site from 2021.
For guidance about compiling full citations consult Citing Primary Sources.
Cite This Item
Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.
Chicago citation style:
Midhat Paşa, Editor. Al-Zaura. [Baghdad, Iraq: publisher not identified, 1869] Periodical. https://www.loc.gov/item/2020741458/.
APA citation style:
Midhat Paşa, E. (1869) Al-Zaura. [Baghdad, Iraq: publisher not identified] [Periodical] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/2020741458/.
MLA citation style:
Midhat Paşa, Editor. Al-Zaura. [Baghdad, Iraq: publisher not identified, 1869] Periodical. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <www.loc.gov/item/2020741458/>.