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Book/Printed Material Er shi yi zhong jiu du Fo Mu zan 二十一種救度佛母贊

About this Item


  • Er shi yi zhong jiu du Fo Mu zan

Other Title

  • 二十一種救度佛母贊

Translated Title

  • Twenty-One Hymns to the Rescuer Mother of Buddhas


  • Also known as "Twenty-One Hymns to the Rescuer Saint Tārā, Mother of Buddhas," this item is a sutra from Tibetan esoteric Buddhism. The copyist was Yong Rong (1744--90), sixth son of the Qianlong emperor and general editor of the Siku quanshu. In addition to being a poet, calligrapher, and painter, Yong Rong had a sophisticated understanding of astronomy and mathematics. On the top protective cover of this item is written, "Imperially commissioned translation of the hymn to the rescuer mother of Buddhas," in Manchu, Tibetan, Mongolian, and Chinese scripts. The calligraphy is excellent, the binding is extraordinary, and the quality of the paper is exquisite. At the end is inscribed, "Respectfully written by scion and servant to the throne Yong Rong." The mother of Buddhas is an avatar of the bodhisattva Guanyin, and her image can be seen in many wall paintings and Tibetan thangka paintings. The 21 rescuer mothers of Buddhas are female deities honored by all sects of Tibetan Buddhism; they are the most beautiful and merciful female deities who release and rescue myriad beings from suffering. The most revered such deities in Tibet and Mongolia are the green and the white rescuing mothers, and many documents relating to them are extant today. No "Imperially commissioned translation of the hymn to the rescuer mother of Buddhas" is known to exist in Manchurian or Mongolian and the Buddhist canon does not include this text, making the documentary and cultural value of this item very high.


  • Yong, Rong, 1744-1790 Calligrapher

Created / Published

  • Beijing, [1763 to 1790].


  • -  China--Beijing--Beijing
  • -  1743 to 1790
  • -  Buddhism


  • -  Title devised, in English, by Library staff.
  • -  Original resource extent: 95 sheets, 9 x 16 centimeters.
  • -  Original resource at: National Library of China.
  • -  Content in Tibetan and Manchu and Mongolian and Chinese.
  • -  Description based on data extracted from World Digital Library, which may be extracted from partner institutions.
  • -  Title revised per Asian Division.--cc28 2023-01-06


  • 1 online resource.

Source Collection

  • National Languages Collection

Digital Id

Library of Congress Control Number

  • 2021666136

Online Format

  • compressed data
  • pdf
  • image

Additional Metadata Formats

IIIF Presentation Manifest

Rights & Access

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Credit Line: [Original Source citation], World Digital Library

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Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Yong, Rong, Calligrapher. Er shi yi zhong jiu du Fo Mu zan. [Beijing, to 1790, 1763] Pdf.

APA citation style:

Yong, R. (1763) Er shi yi zhong jiu du Fo Mu zan. [Beijing, to 1790] [Pdf] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

Yong, Rong, Calligrapher. Er shi yi zhong jiu du Fo Mu zan. [Beijing, to 1790, 1763] Pdf. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.