Book/Printed Material Insights into the Science of Logic.

About this Item


  • Insights into the Science of Logic.


  • Al-Baṣāʼir al-Nuṣayrīyah (or Nasiriyah) fī ʻilm al-manṭiq (Insights into the science of logic) is a treatise on formal logic by the medieval Iranian scholar and jurist ʻUmar Ibn Sahlan al-Sawi (died circa 1058). The work is written in Arabic and is named after the Seljuk official Nusayr al-Din Mahmud (died 1109 or 1110). There are extensive notes on the text by the Egyptian religious leader Muhammad ʻAbduh (1849-1905). Following a brief section on definitions, Ibn Sahlan begins his technical coverage of the elements of formal logic with a discussion of categories and the mechanics of syllogistic reasoning. Al-Baṣāʼir forms a part of the history of the influence of Greek philosophy on Islamic thought. Aristotle's writings on logic provided ground for much debate in intellectual circles in the medieval period, with prominent scholars ranged on all sides. Ibn Sahlan's critique aligns with the group of scholars who, in general, disagreed with the Greek philosopher. The work is said to have had a formative impact on later philosophers such as al-Suhrawardi (died 1191) and on jurists such as Ibn Taymiyah (died 1328), who discussed syllogistic reasoning in philosophy and in legal judgments. In the 19th century, Muhammad ʻAbduh, the Egyptian religious reformer and innovator, discovered Ibn Sahlan's book during his sojourn in Beirut. He characterizes the book as lucidly written and explained, but he observes that "there are learned words, terms, and issues which might have been clear to contemporaries but need some clarification and explanation." To meet this need he annotated the text and updated its terminology. His extensive notes situate Ibn Sahlan in the traditions of Islamic philosophy, comparing him particularly with Ibn Sina (Avicenna). Upon ʻAbduh's return to Cairo, he argued successfully for inclusion of the work in the curriculum at al-Azhar, the foremost theological school in the Sunni world. It remained in the curriculum for many years. This edition of Al-Baṣāʼir was reviewed and prepared for publication by the editors of the Egyptian government's Bulaq Press. A variant title, al-Baṣā'ir al-Nuṣayrīyah, calls into question the timeline of Ibn Sahlan's life and suggests that Ibn Sahlan lived into the 12th century.


  • Ibn Sahlān al-Sāwī, ʻUmar, died approximately 1058 Author.
  • Muḥammad ʻAbduh, 1849-1905 Contributor.

Created / Published

  • Cairo : Bulaq Press, 1898.


  • -  Iran, Islamic Republic of
  • -  Egypt
  • -  1000 to 1898
  • -  Avicenna, 980-1037
  • -  Islam
  • -  Islamic philosophy
  • -  Logic
  • -  Philosophy, Ancient
  • -  Philosophy, Medieval


  • -  Title devised, in English, by Library staff.
  • -  Original resource extent: 191 pages ; 29 centimeters.
  • -  Reference extracted from World Digital Library: Bayard Dodge, Al-Azhar: A Millennium of Muslim Learning (Washington, DC: Middle East Institute, 1961).|Hossein Ziai, "Ebn Sahlān Sāvajī, Qāżī Zayn-al-Dīn 'Omar," in Encyclopaedia Iranica. External
  • -  Original resource at: Qatar National Library.
  • -  Content in Arabic.
  • -  Description based on data extracted from World Digital Library, which may be extracted from partner institutions.


  • 1 online resource.

Digital Id

Library of Congress Control Number

  • 2021666300

Online Format

  • compressed data
  • pdf
  • image

Additional Metadata Formats

IIIF Presentation Manifest

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Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Ibn Sahlān Al-Sāwī, ʻUmar, Died Approximately 1058 Author, and Contributor Muḥammad ʻAbduh. Insights into the Science of Logic. Cairo: Bulaq Press, 1898. Pdf.

APA citation style:

Ibn Sahlān Al-Sāwī, ʻ. & Muḥammad ʻAbduh, C. (1898) Insights into the Science of Logic. Cairo: Bulaq Press. [Pdf] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

Ibn Sahlān Al-Sāwī, ʻUmar, Died Approximately 1058 Author, and Contributor Muḥammad ʻAbduh. Insights into the Science of Logic. Cairo: Bulaq Press, 1898. Pdf. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.