Book/Printed Material Pi xie lun 闢邪論

About this Item


  • Pi xie lun

Other Title

  • 闢邪論

Translated Title

  • Refuting Heresy.


  • Pi xie lun (Refuting heresy) is by Yang Guangxian (1597--1669) from Shexian, Anhui Province, a fierce opponent of the early Christian missionaries to China. Beginning about 1659, Yang assumed the self-appointed role of campaigner against the missionaries. In 1644, German Jesuit Johann Adam Schall von Bell (circa 1592--1666) was asked to prepare for the new Qing dynasty a calendar based on Western mathematical calculations. Schall later was named director of the imperial Board of Astronomy. Yang submitted a document to the Board of Ceremonies, charging Schall with errors in astronomical calculations and accusing him and other missionaries of plotting against the state and of indoctrinating the people with false ideas. Schall, seven Chinese astronomers, and some other Chinese were imprisoned in 1665 and sentenced to death. The three other missionaries involved were Ferdinand Verbiest, Lodovico Buglio, and Gabriel de Magalhães, who were slated to be flogged and exiled. Schall and most of the Chinese were later freed, but five astronomers, all of them Christian converts, were executed. In the same year, Yang was appointed head of the Bureau of Astronomy, but he was removed in 1668 and replaced by the Jesuit Verbiest, who proved the miscalculations made by Yang. The case of Schall, who had since died, was reviewed and Yang was sentenced to banishment. Later released from exile due to his old age, he died on his way home. This manuscript copy, in one volume, is representative of Yang's work against calendars based on Western mathematical calculations. It consists of three juan, each of which has a subtitle. At the end of the text are five appendices of Yang's other works published between 1662 and 1678, including Hun tian shi er gong tu shuo (Illustrated twelve divisions of the celestial sphere). This is a very rare copy.


  • Yang, Guangxian, 1597-1669 Author.

Created / Published

  • [Place of publication not identified] : [Publisher not identified], [1650 to 1670]


  • -  China
  • -  1650 to 1670
  • -  Astronomy, Chinese
  • -  Calendar, Chinese
  • -  Calendars
  • -  Jesuits
  • -  Missionaries


  • -  Title devised, in English, by Library staff.
  • -  "Manuscript copy"--Note extracted from World Digital Library.
  • -  Original resource extent: 3 juan in 2 volumes.
  • -  Original resource at: National Central Library.
  • -  Content in Chinese.
  • -  Description based on data extracted from World Digital Library, which may be extracted from partner institutions.
  • -  Title revised per Asian Division.--cc28 2023-01-06


  • 1 online resource.

Source Collection

  • Chinese Books, Manuscripts, Maps, and Prints

Digital Id

Library of Congress Control Number

  • 2021666324

Online Format

  • compressed data
  • pdf
  • image

Additional Metadata Formats

IIIF Presentation Manifest

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Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Yang, Guangxian, Author. Pi Xie Lun. [Place of publication not identified: Publisher not identified, to 1670, 1650] Pdf.

APA citation style:

Yang, G. (1650) Pi Xie Lun. [Place of publication not identified: Publisher not identified, to 1670] [Pdf] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

Yang, Guangxian, Author. Pi Xie Lun. [Place of publication not identified: Publisher not identified, to 1670, 1650] Pdf. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.