Top of page

Book/Printed Material Shanxi si zhen tu shuo 陝西四鎮圖說

Transcript: PDF

About this Item


  • Shanxi si zhen tu shuo

Other Title

  • 陝西四鎮圖說

Translated Title

  • Illustrated Gazetteer of the Four Counties of Shaanxi


  • Shaanxi si zhen tu shuo (Illustrated gazetteer of the four counties of Shaanxi) is an important work on frontier defenses during the Ming dynasty (1368--1644). It provides details on defensive preparations in the four counties of Shaanxi that were strategic points in the Nine Frontier Fortification System (Yansui, Ningxia, Gansu, and Guyuan). This copy is fragmented and includes only two of an original four volumes, on Yansui and Ningxia. The volume on Yansui has 40 leaves, beginning with the illustrated Yanzhen tu (Map of Yanzhen), followed by illustrated descriptions, in detail, of the county and 36 defensive strongholds, including walled cities, fortresses, and military camps, such as the fortresses of Huangfuchuan Bao and Qingshuiying Bao. Also included are information on the location of the fortresses, boundaries, numbers of defensive troops, numbers of horses and donkeys, army provisions, the locations of enemy nomad tribes outside the borders, and a guide on how to defend, intercept, and kill in the event of an encounter with the enemy. The second volume, on Ningxia, has 35 leaves and records more than 30 fortresses and camps, including the camp of Huama Chi, the fortress of Gaoping, and the walled city of Zhongwei. Although this edition is fragmented and its author and date of publication are unknown, the book is an important source for the study of the politics, economy, and military affairs of the middle Ming dynasty.

Created / Published

  • Shaanxi : [Publisher not identified], [1368 to 1644]


  • -  China--Shaanxi Province
  • -  1368 to 1644
  • -  Geography


  • -  Title devised, in English, by Library staff.
  • -  "Incomplete copy"--Note extracted from World Digital Library.
  • -  Original resource extent: 2 volumes.
  • -  Original resource at: National Central Library.
  • -  Content in Chinese.
  • -  Description based on data extracted from World Digital Library, which may be extracted from partner institutions.
  • -  Title revised per Asian Division.--cc28 2023-01-06


  • 1 online resource.

Source Collection

  • Chinese Books, Manuscripts, Maps, and Prints

Digital Id

Library of Congress Control Number

  • 2021666329

Online Format

  • compressed data
  • pdf
  • image

Additional Metadata Formats

IIIF Presentation Manifest

Rights & Access

The Library of Congress is unaware of any copyright or other restrictions in the World Digital Library Collection. Absent any such restrictions, these materials are free to use and reuse. Researchers are encouraged to review the source information attached to each item. For information on contacting WDL partner organizations, see this archived list of partners

The Library asks that researchers approach the materials in this collection with respect for the culture and sensibilities of the people whose lives, ideas, and creativity are documented here.

Credit Line: [Original Source citation], World Digital Library

More about Copyright and other Restrictions

For additional information and contact information for many of the partner organizations, see this archived capture of the World Digital Library site from 2021.

For guidance about compiling full citations consult Citing Primary Sources.

Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Shanxi Si Zhen Tu Shuo. [Shaanxi: Publisher not identified, to 1644, 1368] Pdf.

APA citation style:

(1368) Shanxi Si Zhen Tu Shuo. [Shaanxi: Publisher not identified, to 1644] [Pdf] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

Shanxi Si Zhen Tu Shuo. [Shaanxi: Publisher not identified, to 1644, 1368] Pdf. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.