Top of page

Book/Printed Material Jiu jing. 酒經.

[ Volume 1 ]

More Resources

[ Volume 2 ]

About this Item


  • Jiu jing.

Other Title

  • 酒經.

Translated Title

  • Wine Classic.


  • Jiu jing (Wine classic) was the first extant comprehensive and systematic Chinese monograph on the technology of yeast production and wine brewing. It was written by Zhu Hong (1050-1125), courtesy name Yizhong, style name Wuqiuzi, later style name Dayinweng. Born in Wucheng (present-day Huzhou, Zhejiang), Zhu Hong received his jinshi degree in the third year (1088) of the Yuanyou era of Song. He served as court gentleman consultant and at the Imperial Archives. Leaving his official post in the first year (1102) of the Chongning era, Zhu Hong moved to Hangzhou and devoted himself to wine making and writing. Jiu jing was written between that year and the fourth year (1114) of the Zhenghe era, before he was drafted and appointed a doctor of medicine. The work has three juan. Juan 1 describes the history of wine. Juan 2 discusses 13 kinds of yeast in three groups, with names of components for each yeast type and methods of the processes. Juan 3 considers processes and important points of wine brewing, such as steeping rice in water, allowing it to turn sour, washing rice with running water, obtaining the right acidity and consistency, using yeast, preparing active fermentation, and so on. The work also discusses various brewing methods for making "white sheep" wine, dihuang wine (wine using Chinese foxglove root), chrysanthemum wine, and grape wine. Song shi yi wen zhi (History of the Song, art and literature records) included this work in one juan. Shuo fu (Boundaries of stories) only included its first juan. This copy has no preface or table of contents, but it has the entire text and it is a Song edition; therefore, it is of great value. The taboo words were observed in the text and the names of engravers provide evidence that it was printed in the Zhejiang region in early Southern Song (circa 1127-77). The copy was held by notable Qing book collectors, including Qian Qianyi, Ji Zhenyi, Xu Qianxue, Wang Shizhong, and others.


  • Zhu, Gong, jin shi 1088 Author.

Created / Published

  • Zhejiang, China : [Publisher not identified], [1127 to 1203]


  • -  China--Zhejiang Province--Hangzhou
  • -  1127 to 1203
  • -  Alcoholic beverages
  • -  Brewing industry
  • -  Chinese classics
  • -  Chinese literature
  • -  Rice wines
  • -  Wine


  • -  Title devised, in English, by Library staff.
  • -  Original resource extent: 2 volumes : stitch-bound ; 25.2 x 14.2 centimeters.
  • -  Original resource at: National Library of China.
  • -  Content in Chinese.
  • -  Description based on data extracted from World Digital Library, which may be extracted from partner institutions.
  • -  Title revised per Asian Division.--cc28 2023-01-06


  • 1 online resource.

Digital Id

Library of Congress Control Number

  • 2021666512

Online Format

  • compressed data
  • pdf
  • image

Additional Metadata Formats

IIIF Presentation Manifest

Rights & Access

The Library of Congress is unaware of any copyright or other restrictions in the World Digital Library Collection. Absent any such restrictions, these materials are free to use and reuse. Researchers are encouraged to review the source information attached to each item. For information on contacting WDL partner organizations, see this archived list of partners

The Library asks that researchers approach the materials in this collection with respect for the culture and sensibilities of the people whose lives, ideas, and creativity are documented here.

Credit Line: [Original Source citation], World Digital Library

More about Copyright and other Restrictions

For additional information and contact information for many of the partner organizations, see this archived capture of the World Digital Library site from 2021.

For guidance about compiling full citations consult Citing Primary Sources.

Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Zhu, Gong, Jin Shi 1088 Author. Jiu Jing. [Zhejiang, China: Publisher not identified, to 1203, 1127] Pdf.

APA citation style:

Zhu, G. (1127) Jiu Jing. [Zhejiang, China: Publisher not identified, to 1203] [Pdf] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

Zhu, Gong, Jin Shi 1088 Author. Jiu Jing. [Zhejiang, China: Publisher not identified, to 1203, 1127] Pdf. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.