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Book/Printed Material Xi ping shi jing 熹平石经

About this Item


  • Xi ping shi jing

Other Title

  • 熹平石经

Translated Title

  • The Xiping Stone Classics


  • These engravings of the seven Confucian classics were set up outside the National University Gate, located on the south side of Loyang, the capital city, in the Eastern Han dynasty. They were created between 175 and 183, after Cai Yong and a group of scholars successfully petitioned the emperor to have the Confucian classics carved in stone in order to prevent their being altered to support particular points of view. They are also called the "Han Stone Classics" and the "Single-Script Stone Classics." The seven classics -- The Book of Changes, The Book of Documents, The Book of Poetry, The Rites, The Spring and Autumn Annals, The Gongyang Tradition, and The Analects -- were copied and engraved in the standard clerical script of the Han period. Each classic is based on the text of one school of transmission and commentary, and notes list the differences in the texts of the schools. These are the first books in Chinese history that are engraved on stone and have significance as "editions." They are from the collections of the National Library of China, which has more than 230,000 rubbings from different materials (tortoise shells, bronze, stones) that are of great value to researchers on Chinese history, geography, politics, economics, military science, folklore, literature, art, science and technology, architecture, and other subjects.


  • Cai, Yong, 133-192 Calligrapher

Created / Published

  • Loyang, Henan Sheng : [Publisher not identified], [175 to 183]


  • -  China--Henan Province--Luoyang
  • -  175 to 183
  • -  Chinese classics
  • -  Confucius
  • -  Graphology
  • -  Han dynasty, 202 B.C.-220 A.D
  • -  Inscriptions, Chinese


  • -  Title devised, in English, by Library staff.
  • -  Original resource extent: One fragment of a stone stele, 23 x 10 centimeters.
  • -  Original resource at: National Library of China.
  • -  Content in Chinese.
  • -  Description based on data extracted from World Digital Library, which may be extracted from partner institutions.
  • -  Title revised per Asian Division.--cc28 2023-01-06


  • 1 online resource.

Source Collection

  • Rubbings of Inscriptions on Metal and Stone

Digital Id

Library of Congress Control Number

  • 2021667417

Online Format

  • compressed data
  • image

Additional Metadata Formats

IIIF Presentation Manifest

Rights & Access

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Credit Line: [Original Source citation], World Digital Library

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Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Cai, Yong, 133-192 Calligrapher. XI Ping Shi Jing. [Loyang, Henan Sheng: Publisher not identified, 175 to 183, 0175] Image.

APA citation style:

Cai, Y. (0175) XI Ping Shi Jing. [Loyang, Henan Sheng: Publisher not identified, 175 to 183] [Image] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

Cai, Yong, 133-192 Calligrapher. XI Ping Shi Jing. [Loyang, Henan Sheng: Publisher not identified, 175 to 183, 0175] Image. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.