Photo, Print, Drawing Xing shi tu 興師圖
About this Item
- Xing shi tu
- Mobilizing the Troops.
- The "Battle Copper Prints" are a series of prints from copper engravings dating from the second half of the 18th century. They were commissioned by the Qianlong emperor of the Qing dynasty (1644--1911), who ruled from 1735 to 1796. They depict his military campaigns in China's inner provinces and along the country's frontiers. The master illustrations for the engravings were large paintings done by European missionary artists employed at that time at the court in Beijing. These artists were Italian Jesuit Giuseppe Castiglione (1688--1766), French Jesuit Jean-Denis Attiret (1702--68), Bohemian Jesuit Ignatius Sichelbarth (1708--80), and the Italian Augustinian missionary, Jean-Damascène Sallusti (d. 1781). The engravings of the first set of 16 paintings were not produced in China but were executed in Paris, at that time home to the best European artisans working in this technique. The emperor even decreed that the work emulate the style of the Augsburg copper engraver Georg Philipp Rugendas the Elder (1666--1742), whose work he knew. Small-scale copies of the paintings by Castiglione and his Beijing colleagues were sent to Paris to be transferred on to copperplates, printed, and then sent back to China, along with the plates and prints. Later sets of engravings were executed in Peking by Chinese apprentices of the Jesuits and differ markedly in style and elaborateness from those of the Paris series. Qianlong's battle copper prints were just one of the means the Manchu emperor employed to document his campaigns of military expansion and suppression of regional unrest. They served to glorify his rule and to exert ideological control over Chinese historiography. In the history of Chinese art, copper-print engraving remained an episode. Seen in their political context, the Qianlong prints represent a distinct and exceptional pictorial genre and are telling examples of the self-dramatization of imperial state power. The East Asia Department of the Berlin State Library holds a set of five series with a total of 64 prints. This is one of 16 prints depicting the 1795 campaign against and pacification of the Miao tribes, in which Qing dynasty forces battled an anti-Chinese uprising by indigenous peoples living in Guizhou and other provinces of southwestern China.
Created / Published
- Beijing, China : The Chinese Imperial Court, 1795.
- - China--Hunan Province
- - 1795
- - Battles
- - Qing dynasty, 1644-1911
- - Title devised, in English, by Library staff.
- - Original resource extent: 50.8 centimeters high and 87.7 centimeters wide; copper plate prints.
- - Original resource at: Berlin State Library - Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation.
- - Content in Chinese.
- - Description based on data extracted from World Digital Library, which may be extracted from partner institutions.
- - Title revised per Asian Division.--cc28 2023-01-06
- 1 online resource.
- Paintings of the Campaign Against and Pacification of the Miao Tribes
Library of Congress Control Number
- compressed data
Additional Metadata Formats
IIIF Presentation Manifest
Rights & Access
The Library of Congress is unaware of any copyright or other restrictions in the World Digital Library Collection. Absent any such restrictions, these materials are free to use and reuse. Researchers are encouraged to review the source information attached to each item. For information on contacting WDL partner organizations, see this archived list of partners
The Library asks that researchers approach the materials in this collection with respect for the culture and sensibilities of the people whose lives, ideas, and creativity are documented here.
Credit Line: [Original Source citation], World Digital Library
More about Copyright and other Restrictions
For additional information and contact information for many of the partner organizations, see this archived capture of the World Digital Library site from 2021.
For guidance about compiling full citations consult Citing Primary Sources.
Cite This Item
Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.
Chicago citation style:
Xing Shi Tu. China Hunan Province, 1795. Beijing, China: The Chinese Imperial Court. Photograph. https://www.loc.gov/item/2021668830/.
APA citation style:
(1795) Xing Shi Tu. China Hunan Province, 1795. Beijing, China: The Chinese Imperial Court. [Photograph] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/2021668830/.
MLA citation style:
Xing Shi Tu. Beijing, China: The Chinese Imperial Court. Photograph. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <www.loc.gov/item/2021668830/>.