Top of page

Photo, Print, Drawing The Germans' Retreat in East Prussia.

About this Item


  • The Germans' Retreat in East Prussia.


  • This print showing German soldiers retreating from advancing Russians is from the collection of World War I lubok posters held at the British Library. The caption explains: "Our troops captured Bakałarzewo and seized large quantities of weapons, equipment, and ammunition. Some of the weapons were seized in the aslant position. On the left bank of the Vistula River, the Germans hastily continue moving to the border. A sharp turn is evident on the East Prussian front since October 21. The enemy, who took the defensive along the entire front line, has begun to retreat in many areas. This retreat is especially evident on the right flank, where the enemy is pushed to Byala and Lyka." Lubok is a Russian word for popular prints created from woodcuts, engravings, etchings, or later, by using lithography. The prints were often characterized by simple, colorful graphics depicting a narrative, and could also include text. Lubok gained popularity in Russia beginning in the late 17th century. The prints, which often depicted narratives from a historical event, literature, or a religious tale, were used to make such stories accessible to illiterate people. These expressive prints had a wide range in tone, from humorous to instructive to sharp political and social commentary. The images were clear and easy to understand, and some of the pictures were serialized, predecessors of the modern comic strip. Prints could be reproduced inexpensively, and were thus a way for the masses to display art at home. Initially, this artistic style was not taken seriously by the upper classes, but by the end of the 19th century, lubok was so well-regarded that it inspired professional artists. During World War I, lubok informed Russians about events on the frontlines, bolstered morale, and served as propaganda against enemy combatants.

Created / Published

  • Moscow : Ivan Fyodorov, 1914.


  • -  Germany
  • -  Poland--Podlaskie--Bakałarzewo
  • -  Russian Federation
  • -  1914-10-21
  • -  Air warfare
  • -  Airships
  • -  Artillery (Weaponry)
  • -  Battles
  • -  Cavalry
  • -  Germany. Army
  • -  Horseback riding
  • -  Horses
  • -  Lubok (Narrative art prints)
  • -  Military operations, Aerial
  • -  Russia. Army
  • -  Soldiers
  • -  War casualties
  • -  War posters
  • -  World War, 1914-1918


  • -  Title devised, in English, by Library staff.
  • -  Original resource at: The British Library.
  • -  Content in Russian.
  • -  Description based on data extracted from World Digital Library, which may be extracted from partner institutions.


  • 1 online resource.

Source Collection

  • World War I

Digital Id

Library of Congress Control Number

  • 2021669177

Online Format

  • compressed data
  • image

Additional Metadata Formats

IIIF Presentation Manifest

Rights & Access

The Library of Congress is unaware of any copyright or other restrictions in the World Digital Library Collection. Absent any such restrictions, these materials are free to use and reuse. Researchers are encouraged to review the source information attached to each item. For information on contacting WDL partner organizations, see this archived list of partners

The Library asks that researchers approach the materials in this collection with respect for the culture and sensibilities of the people whose lives, ideas, and creativity are documented here.

Credit Line: [Original Source citation], World Digital Library

More about Copyright and other Restrictions

For additional information and contact information for many of the partner organizations, see this archived capture of the World Digital Library site from 2021.

For guidance about compiling full citations consult Citing Primary Sources.

Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

The Germans' Retreat in East Prussia. Bakałarzewo Russian Federation Poland Germany Podlaskie, 1914. Moscow: Ivan Fyodorov. Photograph.

APA citation style:

(1914) The Germans' Retreat in East Prussia. Bakałarzewo Russian Federation Poland Germany Podlaskie, 1914. Moscow: Ivan Fyodorov. [Photograph] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

The Germans' Retreat in East Prussia. Moscow: Ivan Fyodorov. Photograph. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.