Photo, Print, Drawing Kenny Lively, United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) union organizer, being interviewed by Mary Hufford
About this Item
- Kenny Lively, United Mine Workers of America (UMWA) union organizer, being interviewed by Mary Hufford
- Contributor Names
- Hufford, Mary (Depicted)
- Lively, Kenny (Depicted)
- Eiler, Lyntha Scott (Photographer)
- Created / Published
- September 29, 1995
- Subject Headings
- - Fall
- - September
- - Year-round work
- - Mining
- - Eagle Mine (W. Va.)
- - Goals Preparation Plant (Shumate's Branch, W. Va.)
- - Sludge ponds
- - Photographs
- - Ethnography
- - West Virginia -- Raleigh County -- Sundial
- - Mountaintop removal and reclamation introduces several new landforms to the coal fields. One of the introduced landforms is the "wet refuse impoundment," a structure designed to store the waste from coal preparation plants. At the Goals Preparation Plant in Sundial, an A.T. Massey subsidiary, coal from surrounding mines is cleaned through a process called "flocculation," which separates ash from coal, making the coal lighter to ship and cleaner to burn. Federal clean air and water legislation prohibits the release of waste water from the cleaning process into streams. Coal companies therefore must store the waste water somewhere for chemical treatment and gradual "dewatering." The solution is to store the "fine refuse" in large hollows behind impoundments made of the coarse refuse. These structures, which are hundreds of feet deep, are known locally as "sludge ponds." Sludge ponds in the project study area are located at Shumate's Branch, Marfork, and Elk Run. Shumate's Branch was settled in the first half of the 19th century, and was farmed continuously until the mid-1980s, when Peabody relocated several dozen families and a cemetery in order to create the space required for the sludge dam. (Bone, 1994)
- - Event: Tour of Shumate's Branch.
- 35 mm Color Slide
- Call Number/Physical Location
- AFC 1999/008: CRF-LE-C019-01
- Source Collection
- Coal River Folklife Collection (AFC 1999/008)
- American Folklife Center
- Digital Id
- Online Format
FormatPhoto, Print, Drawing
ContributorsEiler, Lyntha Scott
SubjectsEagle Mine (W. Va.)
Goals Preparation Plant (Shumate's Branch, W. Va.)
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Coal River Folklife Project collection (AFC 1999/008), American Folklife Center, Library of Congress
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Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.
Chicago citation style:
Hufford, Mary, Kenny Lively, and Lyntha Scott Eiler. Kenny Lively, United Mine Workers of America UMWA union organizer, being interviewed by Mary Hufford. Raleigh County Sundial West Virginia, 1995. Photograph. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/cmns000074/. (Accessed December 13, 2017.)
APA citation style:
Hufford, M., Lively, K. & Eiler, L. S. (1995) Kenny Lively, United Mine Workers of America UMWA union organizer, being interviewed by Mary Hufford. Raleigh County Sundial West Virginia, 1995. [Photograph] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/cmns000074/.
MLA citation style:
Hufford, Mary, Kenny Lively, and Lyntha Scott Eiler. Kenny Lively, United Mine Workers of America UMWA union organizer, being interviewed by Mary Hufford. Photograph. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <https://www.loc.gov/item/cmns000074/>.