Photos, Prints, Drawings Aerial view of Montcoal, looking down on bridge, tipple, Coal River and Route 3
About this Item
- Aerial view of Montcoal, looking down on bridge, tipple, Coal River and Route 3
- Contributor Names
- Eiler, Lyntha Scott (Photographer)
- Created / Published
- October 26, 1995
- Subject Headings
- - Fall
- - Route 3
- - Montcoal
- - Performance Coal Company
- - Coal River (W. Va.)
- - Photographs
- - Ethnography
- - West Virginia -- Raleigh County -- Montcoal
- - "When the mines opened in the 19th century were worked out on New River, they began to open on the Allegheny Plateau, where railroad companies built lines along the rivers. In the 1910s the railroad made its way east from Whitesville to Sundial. In the early 20th century thousands of coal towns and camps began sprang up along the railroad tracks throughout Central Appalachia, drawing immigrants from Eastern Europe, the Mediterranean (Whitesville was known as "Greektown"), and sharecroppers from the American Deep South who came to find work in the mines.
- - One of the earliest coal camps on Coal River was established at Montcoal, shown on early maps as "Hecla." In the 1930s the Colcord Coal Company operated mines at Montcoal. In the 1930s, John L. Lewis came to Montcoal to organize the union, and had to stand, as Mae Bongalis remembers it, on the railroad tracks, because Colcord would not allow him on the property. Mae Bongalis, who grew up in a coal camp on Montcoal Mountain, told of working in the mines as a young girl, and of riding the incline down the mountain and back in order to do business in the valley. The form of the company town was ubiquitous throughout the coalfields, and expressed the social vision of the men who were reshaping the region's economy. The companies provided housing for miners and their families, docking the rent from their paychecks. Food and other necessities were sold at the company store, often in exchange for "scrip," a form of compensation to miners redeemable only at the company store, which many recall charged higher prices than other local retailers. Many companies also built churches, parks, ball fields, and movie theaters.
- - The towns were usually segregated by race and ethnicity, with the more luxurious homes of superintendents and doctors placed above the town. In Montcoal, the superintendent and doctor lived across the river on "Cigar Hill" (45-8). Armco Steel Corporation took over the lease to Montcoal in the 1950s and retained it into the mid-1980s. When Armco left, tenants had an option to buy the houses, but not the land, which the Peabody Coal Corporation leased for a few years, after which the A.T. Massey Coal Company acquired the lease. In the 1990s, John Flynn rented a house in Montcoal, where he coordinated the Appalachia Forest Action Project. During our field project, the Upper Big Branch Mine at Montcoal, a longwall mine, was operated by Performance Coal Company, a subsidiary of Massey Coal.
- - These aerial photographs show the tipple, the continuous belt feeder, the corporate headquarters (45-7), the company town (45-7, 46-4), and the railroad tracks following Coal River and Route 3. Coal from the mine at Upper Big Branch is fed into the large silo, and then funneled through the continuous belt feeder to the square tipple, where coal is loaded into coal truck. The trucks, each of which is capable of carrying a hundred tons or more, drive the coal to loading docks on the Kanawha River. Across Route 3 one can see the homes on what is still known as "Cigar Hill" (45-8)."
- 35 mm Color Slide
- Call Number/Physical Location
- AFC 1999/008: CRF-LE-C045-12
- Source Collection
- Coal River Folklife Collection (AFC 1999/008)
- American Folklife Center
- Digital Id
- Online Format
Rights assessment is your responsibility.
The Library of Congress is not aware of any U.S. copyright protection (see Title 17, U.S.C.) or any other restrictions in the material in this collection, except as noted below. Users should keep in mind that the Library of Congress is providing access to these materials strictly for educational and research purposes. The written permission of the copyright owners and/or other holders of rights (such as publicity and/or privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use of protected items beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. Responsibility for making an independent legal assessment of an item and securing any necessary permissions ultimately rests with persons desiring to use the item. See our Legal Notices and Privacy and Publicity Rights for additional information and restrictions.
The American Folklife Center and the professional fieldworkers who carry out these projects feel a strong ethical responsibility to the people they have visited and who have consented to have their lives documented for the historical record. The Center asks that researchers approach the materials in this collection with respect for the culture and sensibilities of the people whose lives, ideas, and creativity are documented here. Researchers are also reminded that privacy and publicity rights may pertain to certain uses of this material.
Copy photographs of numerous historical still photographs owned by Woody Boggs and Rick Bradford were made and are reproduced here with permission of the owners.
Researchers or others who would like to make further use of these collection materials should contact the Folklife Reading Room for assistance.
Coal River Folklife Project collection (AFC 1999/008), American Folklife Center, Library of Congress
More about Copyright and other Restrictions
For guidance about compiling full citations consult Citing Primary Sources.
Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.
Chicago citation style:
Eiler, Lyntha Scott. Aerial view of Montcoal, looking down on bridge, tipple, Coal River and Route 3. 1995. Image. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/cmns000135/. (Accessed February 25, 2017.)
APA citation style:
Eiler, L. S. (1995) Aerial view of Montcoal, looking down on bridge, tipple, Coal River and Route 3. [Image] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/cmns000135/.
MLA citation style:
Eiler, Lyntha Scott. Aerial view of Montcoal, looking down on bridge, tipple, Coal River and Route 3. 1995. Image. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <https://www.loc.gov/item/cmns000135/>.