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About this Item

Title
Bellamena
Contributor Names
Kennedy, Stetson (Collector)
Cook, Robert Harrison (Collector)
Unidentified performer (Performer)
Created / Published
Key West, Florida
Subject Headings
-  Bahamian Americans
-  Bahamian Americans--Music
-  African Americans
-  Songs
-  United States -- Florida -- Monroe County -- Key West
Genre
Songs
Notes
-  Bahamian
-  Bahamian fish peddler
-  Greek American man
-  A Bahamian folksong, commemorating the role of Caribbean vessels in "rum-running," or transporting alcohol, to the United States during Prohibition (1919-1933). The 18th amendment to the Constitution, known as the Volstead Act, or Prohibition Act, had outlawed the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages in the United States. Enterprising "rum-runners" transported alcohol manufactured from islands in the Caribbean to the U.S., repainting their boats between trips to avoid suspicion by the U.S. Coast Guard.
-  Performer referred to elsewhere as unidentified Bahamian
-  Performance Note: "Bellamena" (vocals with accordion) performed by an unidentified Bahamian at Key West, Florida, on January 23, 1940.
Medium
Sound disc : analog ; 12 in.
Call Number/Physical Location
AFC 1939/013: AFS 03385 B02
Source Collection
Stetson Kennedy and Robert Cook WPA Florida Recordings (AFC 1939/013)
Repository
American Folklife Center
Digital Id
http://hdl.loc.gov/loc.afc/afcflwpa.3385b2
Online Format
audio

Rights & Access

Rights assessment is your responsibility.

The Library of Congress is not aware of any U.S. copyright protection (see Title 17, U.S.C.) or any other restrictions in the material in this collection, except as noted below. Users should keep in mind that the Library of Congress is providing access to these materials strictly for educational and research purposes. The written permission of the copyright owners and/or other holders of rights (such as publicity and/or privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use of protected items beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. Responsibility for making an independent legal assessment of an item and securing any necessary permissions ultimately rests with persons desiring to use the item. See our Legal Notices and Privacy and Publicity Rights for additional information and restrictions.

The Center asks that researchers approach the materials in this collection with respect for the culture and sensibilities of the people whose lives, ideas, and creativity are documented here. Researchers are also reminded that privacy and publicity rights may pertain to certain uses of this material.

A small subset of the sound recordings in this collection (44 items) are not included in this online presentation due to considerations of sound quality or other concerns. See a list of the items in the American Folklife Center's holdings but not provided here online. Researchers with an interest or need to review the entire body of material are encouraged to contact the American Folklife Center. The staff of the American Folklife Center is eager to learn more about the musical compositions and performers included in the collection and encourages the public to contact them with any information.

Credit line

Please cite the source collection title, collection number, and repository, for example:

  • Resettlement Administration Recordings Collection (AFC 1939/016), American Folklife Center, Library of Congress
  • Stetson Kennedy and Robert Cook Florida WPA Recordings (AFC 1939/013), American Folklife Center, Library of Congress
  • Alton C. Morris Florida WPA recordings (AFC 1939/026), American Folklife Center, Library of Congress
  • Florida WPA Recordings, 1940 (AFC 1940/011), American Folklife Center, Library of Congress
  • American Folklife Center correspondence files, American Folklife Center, Library of Congress

More about Copyright and other Restrictions

For guidance about compiling full citations consult Citing Primary Sources.

Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Kennedy, Stetson, Robert Harrison Cook, and Unidentified Performer. Bellamena. Key West, Florida, 1940. Audio. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/flwpa000109/. (Accessed July 23, 2016.)

APA citation style:

Kennedy, S., Cook, R. H. & Unidentified Performer. (1940) Bellamena. Key West, Florida. [Audio] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/flwpa000109/.

MLA citation style:

Kennedy, Stetson, Robert Harrison Cook, and Unidentified Performer. Bellamena. Key West, Florida, 1940. Audio. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <https://www.loc.gov/item/flwpa000109/>.