Top of page

Audio Recording Indian Workers Stacking Hay

Indian Workers Stacking Hay

About this Item


  • Indian Workers Stacking Hay


  • Smart, Stanley (Narrator)
  • Vennum, Thomas (Interviewer)

Created / Published

  • July 27, 1978


  • -  Ninety-Six Ranch
  • -  Activities
  • -  Haying
  • -  Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation
  • -  Native Americans
  • -  Haying crews
  • -  Ethnography
  • -  Interviews


  • Ethnography
  • Interviews


  • -  Stanley Smart, a Northern Paiute Indian, who worked on the 96 Ranch in the past, reminisces about crews of Indian workers stacking hay.
  • -  Stanley Smart is a Northern Paiute from the Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation who worked on the Ninety-Six Ranch a few years ago. He worked on the hay derrick crew and shares his memories of hot working conditions and the stacker's job skills.
  • -  Stackers were the four to six men who arranged the hay on the top of the stack, one of whom was designated stack boss. On the Ninety-Six, the stackers were generally Indians, while the men operating machines or hand-loading hay onto the net were generally whites. Les says that the stackers were "more elite" and received higher pay. The job demanded more skill and there was a risk of injury from a fall.


  • Audio

Call Number/Physical Location

  • AFC 1991/021: NV8-TV-R11

Source Collection

  • Paradise Valley Folklife Project Collection (AFC 1991/021)


  • American Folklife Center

Digital Id

Online Format

  • audio

Rights & Access

The Library of Congress is not aware of any U.S. copyright protection (see Title 17, U.S.C.) or any other restrictions in the material in this collection, except as noted below. Users should keep in mind that the Library of Congress is providing access to these materials strictly for educational and research purposes. The written permission of the copyright owners and/or other holders of rights (such as publicity and/or privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use of protected items beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. Responsibility for making an independent legal assessment of an item and securing any necessary permissions ultimately rests with persons desiring to use the item. See our Legal Notices and Privacy and Publicity Rights for additional information and restrictions.

The American Folklife Center and the professional fieldworkers who carry out these projects feel a strong ethical responsibility to the people they have visited and who have consented to have their lives documented for the historical record. The Center asks that researchers approach the materials in this collection with respect for the culture and sensibilities of the people whose lives, ideas, and creativity are documented here. Researchers are also reminded that privacy and publicity rights may pertain to certain uses of this material.

The Buckaroos in Paradise collection includes copy photographs of numerous historical still photographs, works of art, and other objects that are owned by the families or individuals identified in bibliographic records for those objects. The collection also includes audio and video interviews with individuals who consented to the inclusion of these selections here.

Researchers or others who would like to make further use of these collection materials should contact the Folklife Reading Room for assistance.

Credit line

Paradise Valley Folklife Project collection, 1978-1982 (AFC 1991/021), American Folklife Center, Library of Congress

Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Smart, Stanley, and Thomas Vennum. Indian Workers Stacking Hay. 1978. Audio.

APA citation style:

Smart, S. & Vennum, T. (1978) Indian Workers Stacking Hay. [Audio] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

Smart, Stanley, and Thomas Vennum. Indian Workers Stacking Hay. 1978. Audio. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.