Audio Recording Indian Workers Stacking Hay

About this Item

Indian Workers Stacking Hay
Contributor Names
Smart, Stanley (Narrator)
Vennum, Thomas (Interviewer)
Created / Published
July 27, 1978
Subject Headings
-  Ninety-Six Ranch
-  Activities
-  Haying
-  Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation
-  Native Americans
-  Haying crews
-  Ethnography
-  Interviews
-  Stanley Smart, a Northern Paiute Indian, who worked on the 96 Ranch in the past, reminisces about crews of Indian workers stacking hay.
-  Stanley Smart is a Northern Paiute from the Fort McDermitt Indian Reservation who worked on the Ninety-Six Ranch a few years ago. He worked on the hay derrick crew and shares his memories of hot working conditions and the stacker's job skills.
-  Stackers were the four to six men who arranged the hay on the top of the stack, one of whom was designated stack boss. On the Ninety-Six, the stackers were generally Indians, while the men operating machines or hand-loading hay onto the net were generally whites. Les says that the stackers were "more elite" and received higher pay. The job demanded more skill and there was a risk of injury from a fall.
Call Number/Physical Location
AFC 1991/021: NV8-TV-R11
Source Collection
Paradise Valley Folklife Project Collection (AFC 1991/021)
American Folklife Center
Digital Id
Online Format

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Credit line

Paradise Valley Folklife Project collection, 1978-1982 (AFC 1991/021), American Folklife Center, Library of Congress

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Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Smart, Stanley, and Thomas Vennum. Indian Workers Stacking Hay. 1978. Audio. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, (Accessed November 21, 2017.)

APA citation style:

Smart, S. & Vennum, T. (1978) Indian Workers Stacking Hay. [Audio] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

Smart, Stanley, and Thomas Vennum. Indian Workers Stacking Hay. 1978. Audio. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.