Top of page

Audio Recording Resident Indian Families on Ranches in the Early Days

Resident Indian Families on Ranches in the Early Days

About this Item


  • Resident Indian Families on Ranches in the Early Days


  • Arriola, Martha (Narrator)
  • Gastañaga, Linda (Interviewer)
  • Jones, Suzi (Interviewer)

Created / Published

  • August 1, 1978


  • -  Women
  • -  Activities
  • -  Portraits
  • -  Native Americans
  • -  Martha Arriola Household
  • -  Daisy
  • -  Siwash
  • -  Ethnography
  • -  Interviews


  • Ethnography
  • Interviews


  • -  Martha Arriola gives a description of Siwash, and his wife, Daisy, Native Americans who lived and worked on the 96 Ranch in the past.
  • -  Martha Arriola worked at the Ninety-Six as ranch cook from 1931 to 1938; her immigration and employment are described in audio selections <016> <018> <020>. In 1932, she married Wilhelmina Stock's nephew William Huck, and the couple moved to Reno in 1938. She was widowed in 1955 and married Raymond Arriola in 1957. He had also worked on the Ninety-Six and is part of the hay crew filmed elsewhere in the collection.
  • -  Les's recollections of Siwash and Daisy are much like Arriola's. He had always heard that many ranches had resident Indian families in the early days. Although a few Indian men might have been buckaroos, he said, many more were hired to clear land or build levees. Indian women generally performed domestic chores; Arriola's use of Daisy to help with the laundry is typical. The English word siwash is derived from French sauvage and was used as a pejorative for Indians in the West. Les does not know how Siwash came to have this name. Indian women figure in John E. Grotsch's account of Wilhelmina Stock's initiation as a ranch wife following her wedding in Germany in 1879:
  • -  The thing that frightened her the most was to see the Indians coming around the house and peeking through the windows. The fact was, they were curious to see what kind of woman Bill Stock had brought back for a wife. However, it was only a short time before she became fond of the natives, and since there was always a family or two camped around the ranch, Mrs. Stock employed the women about the house, doing washing, ironing, or other odd jobs. In this audio selection, Arriola alludes to the long silence that followed an Indian's arrival at one's door. Les relates the same custom.


  • Audio

Call Number/Physical Location

  • AFC 1991/021: NV8-SJ-R21

Source Collection

  • Paradise Valley Folklife Project Collection (AFC 1991/021)


  • American Folklife Center

Digital Id

Online Format

  • audio

Rights & Access

The Library of Congress is not aware of any U.S. copyright protection (see Title 17, U.S.C.) or any other restrictions in the material in this collection, except as noted below. Users should keep in mind that the Library of Congress is providing access to these materials strictly for educational and research purposes. The written permission of the copyright owners and/or other holders of rights (such as publicity and/or privacy rights) is required for distribution, reproduction, or other use of protected items beyond that allowed by fair use or other statutory exemptions. Responsibility for making an independent legal assessment of an item and securing any necessary permissions ultimately rests with persons desiring to use the item. See our Legal Notices and Privacy and Publicity Rights for additional information and restrictions.

The American Folklife Center and the professional fieldworkers who carry out these projects feel a strong ethical responsibility to the people they have visited and who have consented to have their lives documented for the historical record. The Center asks that researchers approach the materials in this collection with respect for the culture and sensibilities of the people whose lives, ideas, and creativity are documented here. Researchers are also reminded that privacy and publicity rights may pertain to certain uses of this material.

The Buckaroos in Paradise collection includes copy photographs of numerous historical still photographs, works of art, and other objects that are owned by the families or individuals identified in bibliographic records for those objects. The collection also includes audio and video interviews with individuals who consented to the inclusion of these selections here.

Researchers or others who would like to make further use of these collection materials should contact the Folklife Reading Room for assistance.

Credit line

Paradise Valley Folklife Project collection, 1978-1982 (AFC 1991/021), American Folklife Center, Library of Congress

Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Arriola, Martha, Linda Gastañaga, and Suzi Jones. Resident Indian Families on Ranches in the Early Days. August 1, 1978. Audio.

APA citation style:

Arriola, M., Gastañaga, L. & Jones, S. (1978) Resident Indian Families on Ranches in the Early Days. August 1. [Audio] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

Arriola, Martha, Linda Gastañaga, and Suzi Jones. Resident Indian Families on Ranches in the Early Days. August 1, 1978. Audio. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.