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Book/Printed Material Qavāʻid-i Pushtū

About this Item


  • Qavāʻid-i Pushtū


  • Qavaʼid-i Pushtū (Pushto grammar) is a linguistic work, produced by Pushto Tolanah (Pushto Academy), an Afghan governmental literary organization that was founded in 1938 in Kabul to promote Pushto language, literature, and history. This particular manual was written in Persian by Muhammad Aʻzam Ayazi, a member of Pushto Tolanah, and published in 1939 for both Pushtun and non-Pushtun readers interested in learning the Pushto language. The manual is 224 pages long and is organized into a detailed table of contents, acknowledgements, and 14 sections, each of which is divided into numerous chapters. Section 1 (pages 1-10) is a detailed description of the Pushto alphabet. Section 2 (pages 10-35) is devoted to discussion of the morphology of the language. Section 3 (pages 36-51) discusses Pushto adjectives, their various types and usage. Section 4 (pages 51-67) deals with pronouns, their use, and agreement in the language. Section 5 (the longest section, pages 67-146) is about verbs, their various forms, usage, and conditions. Section 6 (pages 146-55) deals with adverbs in Pushto. Section 7 (the shortest section, pages 155-58) discusses prepositions. Section 8 (pages 158-61) deals with verb phrases. Section 9 (pages 161-64) discusses vowels. Section 10 (pages 164-73) deals with compound words. Section 11 (pages 173-79) discusses syllabification. Section 12 (pages 179-81) deals with punctuation marks. Section 13 (wrongly headed "section 14," pages 182-212) deals with sentence formation. Section 14 (pages 213-22) has a list of Pushto infinitives alongside their Persian meanings. The concluding pages list corrections to the text. World Digital Library.


  • Ayāzī, Muḥammad Aʻẓam, 1878 or 1879-1956 or 1957

Created / Published

  • [Afghanistan] : [Pushto Tolanah], [1939/40]


  • -  Pushto language--Grammar
  • -  Afghanistan


  • -  Early imprint.
  • -  Romanized.
  • -  Also available in digital form on the Library of Congress Web site.


  • 6, 224 p. 26 cm.

Call Number/Physical Location

  • PK6723 .A9

Digital Id

Library of Congress Control Number

  • ne66000395

Online Format

  • pdf
  • image

Additional Metadata Formats

IIIF Presentation Manifest

Rights & Access

The contents of the Library of Congress Persian Language Manuscript Project are in the public domain or have no known copyright restrictions and are free to use and reuse.

Credit Line: Library of Congress, African and Middle East Division, Near East Section Persian Manuscript Collection

Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Ayāzī, Muḥammad AʻẒam, 1878 Or Or 1957. Qavāʻid-i Pushtū. [Afghanistan: Pushto Tolanah, /40, 1939] Pdf.

APA citation style:

Ayāzī, M. A. (1939) Qavāʻid-i Pushtū. [Afghanistan: Pushto Tolanah, /40] [Pdf] Retrieved from the Library of Congress,

MLA citation style:

Ayāzī, Muḥammad AʻẒam, 1878 Or Or 1957. Qavāʻid-i Pushtū. [Afghanistan: Pushto Tolanah, /40, 1939] Pdf. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <>.