Thomas Jefferson

Thomas Jefferson was born on April 13, 1743, at Shadwell in Albemarle County, Virginia.1 He was educated at the College of William and Mary and read law under the eminent Virginia jurist George Wythe. A member of the group of Virginia radicals who opposed Parliamentary policy from the early stages of the American Revolution, Jefferson came to special prominence in 1774 as the author of the influential pamphlet A Summary View of the Rights of British America. The following year he was elected to the Second Continental Congress, where he was chosen to draft the Declaration of Independence at the age of thirty-three.

Let me describe to you a man, not yet forty, tall, and with a mild and pleasing countenance…. An American, who without ever having quitted his own country, is at once a musician, skilled in drawing, a geometrician, an astronomer, a natural philosopher, legislator, and statesman…. Sometimes natural philosophy, at others politics or the arts, were the topics of our conversation, for no object had escaped Mr. Jefferson; and it seemed as if from his youth he had placed his mind, as he has done his house, on an elevated situation, from which he might contemplate the universe.

Travels in North-America, in the Years 1780-81-82, by the Marquis de Chastellux. New York: s.n. 1828. p.227+ American Notes: Travels in America, 1750 to 1920. General Collections

Thomas Jefferson, Third President of the United States. Gilbert Stuart, artist; Boston: Pendleton’s Lithography, ca. 1825-1828. Chronological List of Presidents, First Ladies, and Vice Presidents of the United States: Selected Images from the Collections of the Library of Congress. Prints & Photographs Division
Thomas Jefferson. Original Rough Draught of the Declaration of Independence. June 1776. Top Treasures. In American Treasures of the Library of Congress. Manuscript Division

After the American colonies declared independence from Britain, Jefferson worked for the revision of the laws of his home state of Virginia in order to bring them into conformity with the principles he had articulated in the Declaration. Near the close of the Revolution, he also served two terms as Virginia’s governor. After a brief retirement that ended with the death of his young wife of ten years, Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson, in 1782, Jefferson returned to Congress and crafted legislation that laid the foundation for governance of America’s western territories.

An Act for Establishing Religious Freedom, January 1786. Thomas Jefferson, Laidler: July 1786. Religion and the State Governments. In Religion and the Founding of the American Republic.

Although he had drafted a Bill for Establishing Religious Freedom in 1777, Virginia’s General Assembly postponed its passage. In January 1786, through the efforts of James Madison, the bill was passed as An Act for Establishing Religious Freedom. Pioneering in its affirmation of the absolute right to freedom of belief (or unbelief)—in Jefferson’s words, “meant to comprehend, within the mantle of it’s protection, the Jew and the Gentile, the Christian and Mahometan, the Hindoo and infidel of every denomination”—it was widely hailed in Europe, where Jefferson was then serving as America’s minister to France, and has since been recognized as a landmark in the development of human rights.

Returning to the United States after the ratification of the Constitution, Jefferson served as the nation’s first secretary of state and then as its vice president. During these years, he became the first leader of one of the nation’s two earliest political parties, the Republican Party, from which today’s Democratic Party descends.

In the election of 1800, which he and his followers framed as a contest between aristocratic Federalists and the more democratic Republicans, Jefferson defeated his old friend John Adams to become the third president of the United States. In that capacity he skillfully merged the roles of president and party leader, setting a precedent that all presidents since have followed. Highlights of his two-term presidency included the acquisition of the vast Louisiana Territory from France and Jefferson’s initiation and guidance of the Lewis and Clark Expedition.

These achievements were in some measure offset in his second term by the Embargo of American maritime commerce and navigation, a desperate attempt to keep the young nation out of war with Britain. The deeply unpopular Embargo failed and was repealed as Jefferson left office. War with Britain followed in 1812, and in 1814 the British set fire to the U.S. Capitol, destroying the fledgling Congressional Library. As an inveterate collector of books, Jefferson was able to sell his superb personal library to Congress in 1815 as the foundation of the new Library of Congress.

Monticello, home of Thomas Jefferson, Charlottesville, Va. John Collier, photographer, April 1943. Farm Security Administration/Office of War Information Color Photographs. Prints & Photographs Division

The last years of his life were spent in retirement at his Virginia estate, Monticello External, in the house he designed External. Although Jefferson had no formal architectural training, his influential designs and lifelong commitment to the importance of architecture in the life of the nation did much to establish a distinctive American classicism. And in the eight years before his death on July 4, 1826—the fiftieth anniversary of American independence—Jefferson founded, designed, and directed the building of the University of Virginia. External

Jurist, diplomat, writer, philosopher, architect, gardener, statesman, and principal founder of the Library of Congress, Thomas Jefferson requested that only three of his many accomplishments be noted on his tomb at Monticello: “Author of the Declaration of American Independence, of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom, and Father of the University of Virginia.”

University of Va., Charlottesville, Va. Haines Photo Co., c1909. Panoramic Photographs. Prints & Photographs Division

The Thomas Jefferson Papers, 1606 to 1827, includes approximately 27,000 documents, or some 83,000 images, from the Library’s collection of Jefferson’s papers, which is the largest group of original Jefferson documents in the world. The online version of the collection also includes additional features such as an essay on Jefferson by the historian Joseph J. Ellis and timelines of Jefferson’s life and of the early Virginia history whose records Jefferson collected and preserved with his own.

  1. With the intention of more accurately reflecting a solar year, the Julian (“Old Style”) Calendar was replaced by the Gregorian Calendar in 1752. At that time Thomas Jefferson’s April 2, 1743, birth date was adjusted to the “New Style” date of April 13, 1743. (Return to text)

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Grand Old Flag

Although it did not become official until July 4, on April 13, 1818, a new flag was flown over the U.S. Capitol for the first time. The flag’s thirteen stripes represented the original colonies; its twenty stars symbolized the number of states in the Union at that time. Congressman Peter H. Wendover arranged for the flag to be hoisted over the Capitol in Washington D.C. on the same day it was received there. The flag was mailed by naval officer and War of 1812 hero, Samuel C. Reid. Wendover and Reid had collaborated on a bill to standardize the addition of stars on the flag to correspond to states in the union. Reid designed the flag; his wife and her friends sewed it.

Design of various flags and the “National Cockade . . . As Adopted by Congress in 1818.” Samuel Chester Reid Family Papers. Pen and ink and watercolor drawing, February 17, 1850. American Treasures of the Library of Congress. Manuscript Division

Reid arranged the 20 stars to form one large star on the blue canton of this flag. He described this design in a letter to his son decades later. American flags with the stars arranged this way came to be known as great star or grand luminary flags. The arrangement of stars on American flags would not be standardized until 1912 when the flag was changed from 46 to to 48 stars.

U.S. Capitol Exteriors. Flag and East Front of U.S. Capitol. Theodor Horydczak, photographer, ca 1920-1950. Horydczak Collection . Prints & Photographs Division

The first national flag, emblazoned with thirteen stripes and thirteen stars, was modified in 1795 when Kentucky and Vermont entered the Union after Congress passed the Flag Act of 1795 calling for 15 stripes and 15 stars. The Ft. McHenry flag that inspired Francis Scott Key to write The Star Spangled Banner during the War of 1812 met this standard.

Continued expansion of the Union meant Congress soon again faced the prospect of adding to the number of the flag’s stars and stripes. Thus, in 1818, Congress settled on the expediency of altering the flag according to its present formula whereby stripes represent the original thirteen colonies, and stars are coincident with the number of states in the Union. The Independence Day following the admission of a state was set as the occasion for adding new stars to the flag. After Hawaii became a state on August 21, 1959, the fiftieth star was added to the flag on July 4, 1960.

You’re a grand old flag. George M. Cohan, words and music; New York: F.A. Mills, c1906. Patriotic Melodies. Music Division

Read about and view sheet music of “You’re a Grand Old Flag,” composed George M. Cohan in 1906, and first published as You’re a Grand Old Rag, in the Music Division’s Patriotic Melodies collection. The essay also includes links to a recording of the song by tenor, Billy Murray from 1906, and to three recent recordings by United States military bands: the U.S. Air Force Band, the U.S. Coast Guard Band, and the U.S. Marine Band.

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