On February 15, 1898, an explosion of unknown origin sank the battleship U.S.S. Maine in the Havana, Cuba harbor, killing 266 of the 354 crew members. The sinking of the Maine incited United States’ passions against Spain, eventually leading to a naval blockade of Cuba and a declaration of war.
Ostensibly on a friendly visit, the Maine had been sent to Cuba to protect the interests of Americans there after riots broke out in Havana in January. An official U.S. Naval Court of Inquiry reported on March 28 that the ship, one of the first American battleships and built at a cost of more than two million dollars, had been blown up by a mine without laying blame on any person or nation in particular, but public opinion in the United States blamed the Spanish military occupying Cuba anyway. Subsequent diplomatic communications failed to resolve the matter, leading to the start of the Spanish-American War by the end of April.
The Spanish-American War is notable as the first U.S. war documented by the motion picture camera. The Edison Manufacturing Company, for example, sent cameraman William Paley to Key West, Florida, where he filmed Burial of the “Maine” Victims on March 27, 1898. In late March he also filmed the Wreck of the Battleship “Maine” in the Havana harbor, and in late April and early May of that year he filmed, in Florida, military preparations for the war. A special “War Extra,” issued on May 20, 1898, as a supplement to the Edison Manufacturing Company catalog, promised that these motion pictures “would be sure to satisfy the craving of the general public for absolutely true and accurate details regarding the movements of the United States Army getting ready for the invasion of Cuba.”
- The Spanish-American War in Motion Pictures collection features 68 motion pictures, produced between 1898 and 1901, of the Spanish-American War and the subsequent Philippine Revolution. For an overview of the films in this collection, with essays offering an historical context, view the special presentation The Motion Picture Camera Goes to War.
- A Guide to the Spanish-American War links to a wide variety of digital materials relating to the Spanish-American War available on the Library’s Web site as well as to external sites. The guide also includes a selected bibliography.
- The World of 1898: The Spanish-American War is a presentation of the Library of Congress Hispanic Division. The site contains chronologies, bibliographies, and a variety of pictorial and textual material from bilingual sources, supplemented by an overview essay about the war and the period.
- To find additional images of the ill-fated battleship and its crew, search on Maine Battleship in the Library’s digital collections containing prints and photographs.
- Search Chronicling America to find historic American newspaper pages about the Spanish-American War. In addition, the Newspaper and Current Periodical Reading Room has created newspaper topics guides on the major events of the Spanish American War and the sinking of the Maine.
- See the Today in History features on the arrival of the first U.S. Marines at Guantánamo Bay on June 10, 1898, the Battle of San Juan Hill on July 1, and the October 18 raising of the U.S. flag in Puerto Rico.