Stonewall Jackson

Thomas Jonathan “Stonewall” Jackson , one of Robert E. Lee’s most outstanding generals in the Army of Northern Virginia, was born in Clarksburg, Virginia (now West Virginia), on January 21, 1824. Orphaned at a young age, Jackson spent much of his childhood moving between the homes of various family members. In 1842, he was awarded an appointment to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point. A commissioned officer during the Mexican War, he served as a second lieutenant of artillery, was promoted to first lieutenant, and later won brevets to captain and major.
Gen. “Stonewall” Jackson, C.S.A. [No Date Recorded on Caption Card] Image. Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. 
 
Portrait of Private John J. Rhodes, Company K, 5th Virginia Regiment, C.S.A. (Stonewall Brigade), circa 1860-1865. Selected Civil War Photographs 1861-1865, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress. 
In 1851, Jackson resigned from the U.S. Army to teach military tactics and natural philosophy at the Virginia Military Institute in Lexington, Virginia. While there, the stern instructor, known to students as “Deacon Jackson,” was considered eccentric. In December 1859, Jackson commanded the VMI cadet corps at the hanging of abolitionist John Brown. When Virginia seceded from the Union in April 1861, Jackson volunteered to serve his state and quickly organized a group of amateur soldiers into an effective army brigade. By July of that year, Jackson’s men, fighting in the army of Joseph E. Johnston, moved to meet the federal invasion of Virginia at Bull Run. Here, Jackson earned the admiration of fellow soldiers for standing “like a stone wall” in the face of enemy fire. Jackson, in response, is reported to have said, “Let my men have the name, it belongs more to them than to me.” In 1862, Jackson fought with distinction at the Second Battle of Manassas, the siege of Harper’s Ferry, the Battle of Antietam, and the Battle of Fredericksburg. Wounded in May 1863 while pursuing Joseph Hooker at the Battle of Chancellorsville, General Jackson died from pneumonia eight days later.
Panorama of the Seat of War [with Smoke Over the Manassas Battlefield], lithograph by John Bachmann, 1861. Geography and Map Division, Library of Congress. 
Ruins of Arsenal, Silas A. Holmes, photographer, Harper’s Ferry, West Virginia, October 1862. Selected Civil War Photographs, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress.
…the old [Confederate] “grayback”…after the surrender, went to the [Union] Provost Marshal…to be paroled. After taking all the oaths required of him, he asked the Provost if he wasn’t all right. “Yes,” said the Captain, “you are.” “Good a Union man as anybody, ain’t I.” “Yes,” replied the Captain, “you are in the Union now as a loyal citizen, and can go ahead all right.” “Well, then,” said the old sinner; “didn’t ‘Stonewall’ use to give us h–l in the Valley.”

How A One-Legged Rebel Lives: Reminiscences of the Civil War: The Story of the Campaigns of Stonewall Jackson External, page 48, by John S. Robson, First Person Narratives of the American South, 1860-1920.

Learn More

  • Search the Civil War Maps Collection on Manassas, Bull Run, or Fredericksburg for maps related to battles in which Stonewall Jackson fought. Major Jedediah Hotchkiss, a topographical engineer in the Confederate Army, made detailed reconnaissance maps used by “Stonewall” Jackson.
  • To see a variety of Civil War song sheets which mention the General Stonewall Jackson, search the sheet music collection America Singing: Nineteenth Century Song Sheets using the phrase “Stonewall Jackson.” You will find a number of Civil War songs in this collection, including one entitled “Stonewall Jackson’s Way.
  • Learn more about the Civil War. Search Today in History using the term Civil War to view features such as:
    • General Lee’s evacuation of Richmond and his surrender to Grant;
    • Military engagements at Vicksburg, Gettysburg, Nashville, and Antietam;
    • Other key figures from the Civil War era such as Jefferson Davis and Mary Todd Lincoln;
    • Other events related to the Civil War, including Abraham Lincoln’s Gettysburg Address and the execution of Henry Wirz, commander of the Andersonville Prison.
  • First Person Narratives of the American South, 1860-1920 reveals the culture of the American South, from the viewpoint of Southerners, during and after the Civil War. Search on Stonewall Jackson for more information about him.