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Today in History - June 18

The War of 1812

On June 18, 1812, President James Madison signed a declaration of war against Great Britain, marking the beginning of the War of 1812. Frustrated by Britain’s maritime practices and support of Native American resistance to western expansion, the U.S. entered the war with ambitious plans to conquer Canada, a goal that was never realized.
The Fall of Washington—or Maddy in Full Flight (detail), Engraving, London: S. W. Fores, 1814. Prints & Photographs Division
The strength of the British army proved too great for U.S. forces. Both on land and at sea, U.S. troops suffered great losses. In August 1814, British troops entered Washington, D.C., and burned the Capitol and the White House. By December, both the Americans and the British recognized that it was time to end the conflict. Representatives of the two nations met in Belgium on December 24 and signed the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the war and restored previously recognized boundaries between the United States and British territory in North America.
Funeral of Hiram Cronk, American Mutoscope and iograph Company, 1905. The Life of a City: Early Films of New York, 1898-1906
Hiram Cronk, who was thought to have been the last surviving veteran of the War of 1812, died in 1905 at the age of 105. This film shows his funeral procession through Brooklyn, New York, which included a hearse drawn by four black horses, escorted by veterans of the Civil War.
U.S.S. Constitution and H.M.S. Java, photograph (between 1900 and 1920) of a painting, December 23, 1812. Touring Turn-of-the-Century America: Photographs from the Detroit Publishing Company, 1880-1920
Victory monument, Put-In-Bay, Ohio, between 1900 and 1910. Touring Turn-of-the-Century America: Photographs from the Detroit Publishing Company, 1880-1920 The monument bears the inscription, “In commemoration of Perry’s victory at Put-In-Bay, September 10, 1813.”

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I Want You

James Montgomery Flagg, creator of this illustration of Uncle Sam, was born on June 18, 1877, in Pelham Manor, New York. Flagg claimed that his illustration, an indelible American icon, had become the most famous poster in the world. Dressed in his own Uncle Sam suit, he used himself as the model for this poster and his other Uncle Sam illustrations.
I Want You for the U.S. Army, James Montgomery Flagg, artist, 1917. American Treasures of the Library of Congress
An illustrator and portrait artist best known for his commercial art, Flagg contributed forty-six works in support of the war effort during World War I. Leslie’s Weekly first published his picture of Uncle Sam as the cover of the July 6, 1916, issue with the title “What Are You Doing for Preparedness?” More than four million copies were printed between 1917 and 1918. The image also was used extensively during World War II. In 1961, Congress passed a resolution that officially recognized meat packer Samuel Wilson (1766-1854) as Uncle Sam’s namesake. Wilson, who supplied meat to the army during the War of 1812, is reputed to have been a man of great fairness, reliability, and honesty who was devoted to his country.
Be a U.S. Marine! James Montgomery Flagg, artist, circa 1918. Prints & Photographs Division
James Montgomery Flagg, Arnold Genthe, photographer, September 28, 1915. Prints & Photographs Division
Wake Up America! Civilization Calls Every Man, Woman and Child!, James Montgomery Flagg, artist, 1917. Prints & Photographs Division

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