On November 14, 1732, the Library Company of Philadelphia signed a contract with its first librarian. Founded by Benjamin Franklin and friends in November 1731, the library enrolled members for a fee of forty shillings but had to wait for books to arrive from England before beginning full operation.
Many subscription libraries—founded to benefit academies, colleges, and other groups—were established from the late seventeenth through the nineteenth centuries. The Library Company of Philadelphia grew out of the needs of the Leather Apron Club, also known as the “Junto,” of which Franklin was a member. In addition to exchanging business information, these merchants discussed politics and natural philosophy, contributing to their requirements for books to satisfy their widespread interests. Volumes were purchased with the annual contributions of shareholders, building a more comprehensive library than any individual could afford.
Directors of the Library Company made their holdings available to the first Continental Congress when it convened in Philadelphia in September 1774. Their offer is recorded in The Journals of the Continental Congress:
[An] Extract from minutes of the directors of the Library Company of Philadelphia, dated August 31 st .,—directed to the President, was read, as follows:
Upon motion, ordered,
That the Librarian furnish the gentlemen, who are to meet in Congress, with the use of such Books as they may have occasion for, during their sitting, taking a receipt for them. By order of the Directors, (Signed) William Attmore, Sec’y.
Ordered, That the thanks of the Congress be returned to the Directors of the Library Company of Philadelphia, for their obliging order.
Tuesday, September 6, 1774, Journals of the Continental Congress. A Century of Lawmaking for a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875
After independence, the third session of the new Federal Congress convened in Philadelphia in January 1791, and the Library Company directors again tendered use of their facility. In essence, the Library Company served as the de facto Library of Congress until 1800 when the fledgling legislature moved to its permanent Washington, D.C., location and the Library of Congress was founded.
Many other subscription libraries developed in the United States. These include:
- the Boston Athenaeum External in Massachusetts (1807);
- Willoughby Township Library External in Ohio (1827);
- Onarga Community Library External in Illinois (1858);
- Aberdeen Free Library Association in the Dakota Territory (1884);
- and the Grand Junction library External in Colorado (1897).
The advent of free public libraries, supported in large part by Andrew Carnegie, diminished the subscription library’s importance. Today, subscription libraries, with their rich holdings of rare books, prints, and photographs, are enormously valuable to students of United States history and culture.
- A Century of Lawmaking For a New Nation: U.S. Congressional Documents and Debates, 1774-1875 provides access to material that covers the Continental Congress, the Constitutional Convention, and the First and Second Federal Congresses. Search on Library Company of Philadelphia to find references spanning the period from 1774 to 1791. Further instructions on using the collection and navigating the texts are available online.
- Search Today in History on the term Library of Congress to learn more about the Library of Congress. Isaiah Thomas (1749-1831), publisher and founder of the American Antiquarian Society, is featured in the Today in History feature Enoch Brooks’ Curious Book.
- Wouldn’t Benjamin Franklin be amazed by and enjoy the Web site of the Library Company of Philadelphia External?