Audio Recording Interview H0012: with Radrü Ngawang [Tib. dbra phrug ngag dbang], (India, November 1992)

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[ Part 9 ]
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About this Item

Title
Interview H0012: with Radrü Ngawang [Tib. dbra phrug ngag dbang], (India, November 1992)
Contributor Names
Paljor Tsarong (interviewer)
Goldstein, Melvyn (editor)
Radrü Ngawang [Tib. dbra phrug ngag dbang] -- b. 1926 (interviewee)
Created / Published
Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.
Subject Headings
-  Political History Collection
Notes
-  Audio for Part 9 is missing.
-  India (place of recording)
-  The interview was conducted and recorded in Tibetan and translated into English. (contents)
-  Interview in Tibetan.
-  This document is part of the Political History Collection of the Tibetan Oral History and Archive Project, edited by Melvyn Goldstein, and published by the Center for Research on Tibet, Department of Anthropology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio.
-  male (gender)
Form
sound recording
Extent
9 text files.
8 digital audio files.
Part 1: 91 min 43 s
Part 2: 46 min 3 s
Part 3: 106 min 3 s
Part 4: 106 min 3 s
Part 5: 113 min 53 s
Part 6: 95 min 26 s
Part 7: 85 min 16 s
Part 8: 94 min 24 s
Language
Tibetan
Online Format
audio
online text
pdf
Description
Part 1: Radrü Ngawang [Tib. dbra phrug ngag dbang] was a Litang (Khamba) monk who became a monastic manager/trader (Tib. Jiso) and then became one of the top military commanders in Chushigandru. In this interview, he discusses how he became the Jiso of the Litang monastery and the work he did. He also talks about the early years when the People's Liberation Army first came to Litang, about when the Dalai Lama passed through Kham on his way back from Beijing in 1955, and Alo Chöndze's activities. He then talks about the uprising in Litang in 1956 and how this led to the rise of the Chushigandru in Lhasa. He also talks about the decision to move to Drigutang, the start of the fighting in 1958 and finally the uprising of 1959. Part 2: Radrü Ngawang [Tib. dbra phrug ngag dbang] was a Litang (Khamba) monk who became a monastic manager/trader (Tib. Jiso) and then became one of the top military commanders in Chushigandru. In this interview, he discusses how he went to Phembo after getting separated from Gombo Tashi's main force, and then to Lhasa. He also discusses his dealings with Phala's people in Lhasa where he went to try to secure weapons for his fighters in Phembo, and then explains his decision to return with them to Lhoka. He talks about his discussions in Lhasa about getting the Dalai Lama out of Lhasa with Phala's people, and the famous ambush he conducted against a Chinese convoy on his way back to Lhoka, and how he was selected to lead the second attack on Tsetang. Then he discusses, in detail, the arrival of Namseling and Samjola in Lhoka and their mission, as well as the problems they encountered. Finally, he discusses the CIA's refusal to provide arms to the Khambas at the appropriate time, and then the failure of the mission when they parachuted into Tibet after 1959. Part 3: Radrü Ngawang [Tib. dbra phrug ngag dbang] was a Litang (Khamba) monk who became a monastic manager/trader (Tib. Jiso) and then became one of the top military commanders in Chushigandru. In this interview, he discusses encounters between the Chinese and Chushigandru, including the Dokarsumdo battle and the ambush at Wuyug Dzomtang in 1958. He also discusses more encounters between Chushigandru and the Chinese, including battles at the Dam Airport, Drigung Lungshö, Mashung, Gongkar and Tsetang. Part 4: Radrü Ngawang [Tib. dbra phrug ngag dbang] was a Litang (Khamba) monk who became a monastic manager/trader (Tib. Jiso) and then became one of the top military commanders in Chushigandru. In this interview, he discusses in detail how Chushigandru was organized in Drigutang, and how they appointed their leaders and supplied food to the 1,000-2,000 Chushigandru soldiers. He then explains the mission led by Gombo Tashi to get weapons from Shang Ganden Chöngor, and how he ended up getting separated from the main regiment and ended up in Phembo and Lhasa. He also explains how he discussed the Dalai Lama's situation with Phala's people in Lhasa, and how he offered to take him out of Lhasa. Finally, he discusses how and why he returned to Lhoka in December 1958, and how, on the way, he organized the famous ambush of a convoy of 39 Chinese trucks at Gongkar. He also alks about the conflicts within Chushigandru at this time and the conflict between Chushigandru and Namseling. Part 5: Radrü Ngawang [Tib. dbra phrug ngag dbang] was a Litang (Khamba) monk who became a monastic manager/trader (Tib. Jiso) and then became one of the top military commanders in Chushigandru. In this interview, he discusses the origin and establishment of Chushigandru in Lhoka and the expedition led by Gombo Tashi to take the weapons stored in an arsenal of the Tibetan government at Shang Ganden Chöngor. He discusses, in detail, the events and battles getting to Shang and how they secured the arms without having to engage the monastery in battle. Part 6: Radrü Ngawang [Tib. dbra phrug ngag dbang] was a Litang (Khamba) monk who became a monastic manager/trader (Tib. Jiso) and then became one of the top military commanders in Chushigandru. In this interview, he first talks about the conversation between Phala and Andrutsang where Phala told Andrutsang to take care of Athar and Lotse, and that he hoped the Third World War would start. He also talks about how they hoped to recruit 10,000 militia from Lhoka if they got weapons. He details how the Chinese Tempa Dargye fled from Chushul, and Gombo TAsshi's expedition to Ganden Chöngor, the Dokarsumdo and Wuyug Dzomtang battles, and about how the military orders were passed down. He also explains his main duties as the Yeru Magji, and further describes the battle in Drigung Mashung where Andrutsang was wounded. Then he explains how he got separated from Andrutsang and the main force. Finally, he describes meeting Tsendrön Kelsang Ngawang in Lhasa and being sent to Lhoka with ammunition. Part 7: Radrü Ngawang [Tib. dbra phrug ngag dbang] was a Litang (Khamba) monk who became a monastic manager/trader (Tib. Jiso) and then became one of the top military commanders in Chushigandru. In this interview, he first describes fighting in the north and his travelling to E Lhagyari. He also comments on his status with Andrutsang and his other peers, and then he discusses the political maneuverings of Jagö Namgyal Dorje, Chamdo Dotse, and Namseling. He also describes the Dalai Lama's leaving Tibet, and the actions of Chushigandru, the CIA's attempt to train 60-70 Tibetans for covert actions, and his experiences trying to organize and supply a small army. Finally, he describes how the Khambas tried to stop the Dalai Lama from returning in 1956 by trying to launch a revolt in Yadong. Part 8: Radrü Ngawang [Tib. dbra phrug ngag dbang] was a Litang (Khamba) monk who became a monastic manager/trader (Tib. Jiso) and then became one of the top military commanders in Chushigandru. In this interview, he discusses how he left for Lhoka and the arrival of a large number of Chinese trucks in Lhoka. He discusses how he and Andrutsang planned to get arms in Gyantse in order to hold Lhoka and fight using guerilla warfare, and also the plan to make a disturbance in Yadong and Lhasa to stop the Dalai Lama from going back from India in 1957. He describes the airdrop arranged by Athar and Lotse, his involvement in the fighting in Litang and Kham, and talks about Andru's role in making revolts throughout these areas. Finally, he talks about preparations for a visit by the Dalai Lama, as well as what he heard about the war in Litang and the story of Yönrupön. Part 9: Radrü Ngawang [Tib. dbra phrug ngag dbang] was a Litang (Khamba) monk who became a monastic manager/trader (Tib. Jiso) and then became one of the top military commanders in Chushigandru. In this interview, he discusses the organization of Chushigandru and the role of the Khambas. He describes the golden throne, as well as fighting between the Litangbas and the Chinese. He also briefly describes the false Khambas planted by the Chinese. Finally, he lists the ways in which Chushigandru raised money for arms and food, and divided military control. sound recording | 9 text files. | 8 digital audio files. | Part 1: 91 min 43 s | Part 2: 46 min 3 s | Part 3: 106 min 3 s | Part 4: 106 min 3 s | Part 5: 113 min 53 s | Part 6: 95 min 26 s | Part 7: 85 min 16 s | Part 8: 94 min 24 s | Audio for Part 9 is missing. India (Place Of Recording). The interview was conducted and recorded in Tibetan and translated into English. (Contents). Interview in Tibetan. This document is part of the Political History Collection of the Tibetan Oral History and Archive Project, edited by Melvyn Goldstein, and published by the Center for Research on Tibet, Department of Anthropology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. male (Gender). Sound Recording (Form).
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Cite This Item

Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Paljor Tsarong, Melvyn Goldstein, and Radrü Ngawang Tib. Dbra Phrug Ngag Dbang. Interview H: with Radrü Ngawang Tib. dbra phrug ngag dbang, India, November 1992. Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, 1992. Pdf. https://www.loc.gov/item/tohap.H0012/.

APA citation style:

Paljor Tsarong, Goldstein, M. & Radrü Ngawang Tib. Dbra Phrug Ngag Dbang. (1992) Interview H: with Radrü Ngawang Tib. dbra phrug ngag dbang, India, November 1992. Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio. [Pdf] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/tohap.H0012/.

MLA citation style:

Paljor Tsarong, Melvyn Goldstein, and Radrü Ngawang Tib. Dbra Phrug Ngag Dbang. Interview H: with Radrü Ngawang Tib. dbra phrug ngag dbang, India, November 1992. Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, Ohio, 1992. Pdf. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <www.loc.gov/item/tohap.H0012/>.