Law Library Reading Room

While many countries have statutorily declared the print version of their gazette to be the official source of law, as more nations shift to publishing gazettes in digital format, the authoritativeness of these non-print versions is not always clear. The table below provides an overview of the status of digital gazettes in numerous jurisdictions. The following chart provides information about the online gazettes of fifty-six countries, including the title and URL of the online gazette, citations to relevant legislative information, an indication of whether the online gazette has been designated as “official,” and information on whether online access is free or fee-based.  The chart includes countries that have affirmatively provided that the online version of their gazette is considered official and those that have not.

Prepared October 2015; Updated periodically

Jurisdiction Title of Gazette Online Version Affirmatively Considered Official* Provision Authorizing
Official Status
Free Access?

Al-Jarīdah Al-Rasmīyah

No No provisions authorizing official status

Boletín Oficial



Free online access is established by Resolución 70/2010 del Secretaría Legal y Técnica de la Presidencia de la Nación, Direccion Nacional del Registro Oficial [Resolution 70/2010 of the Legal and Technical Secretariat of the National Presidency, National Bureau of Official Records] art. 1, infolegInternet/ anexos/ 170000-174999/174619/norma.htm
, archived at

According to Decree 207/2016, Jan. 18, 2016 (
#!Detalle Normativa/1108250/null
)  the publication of the Boletin Oficial of Argentina in its website  is considered official and authentic, having the same legal effects as its printed edition.

legislation section free;
other sections
by paid

Government Notices Gazette
[GN] (part of Commonwealth
of Australia Gazette; there are multiple specialist gazettes
produced by the Australian government, see

Yes The GN has been available in electronic format since Oct. 10, 2012; print publication of the GN ceased on June 30, 2013.  See Government Notices Gazette: General Information, ComLaw, content/ Gazettes (last visited Oct. 15, 2015), archived at  The GN notices are now published
electronically as individual notices.  Other Australian government notices
are published in specialist gazettes produced by various government agencies. Gazettal requirements appear to be changing as a result of the passage of the Acts and Instruments (Framework Reform) Act 2015, Details/C2015A00010, archived at
.  This legislation will establish a consolidated
Federal Register of Legislation, which will incorporate the existing official
databases of legislation and legislative instruments on the ComLaw website. 
A requirement in legislation for an instrument to be published or notified in the Gazette will be satisfied by registration.


Yes Bundesgesetz über das Bundesgesetzblatt 2004 [Bundesgesetzblattgesetz] [BGBlG] [Federal Act on the Federal Law Gazette 2004] [Federal Law Gazette Act], BGBl. I No.  100/2003, as amended, §§ 1, 6, 7, GeltendeFassung/ Bundesnormen / 20002988/ BGBlG%2c %20Fassung %20vom% 2003.08.2015.pdf
, archived at, English version available at https://www.ris. Dokumente/ Erv/ ERV _2003 _1_100/ ERV_2003_1_100.pdf
archived at

Al-Jarīdah Al-Rasmīyah

No The Ministry of Information is the designated authority that publishes the official gazette according to an official statement on the Department of Legislation and Legal Opinion Commission website.  See Legislation and Legal Opinion Commission, 61.aspx?cms= iQRpheuph YtJ6pyXUG
(in Arabic; last visited Sept. 22, 2015), archived at
.  Electronic copies of the gazette appear on the Ministry’s website in PDF, stamped with the Government Printing Press name.

Moniteur Belge

http://www.ejustice. cgi/

Yes Loi-programme du 24 décembre 2002, modifiée par la loi portant des dispositions diverses du 20 juillet 2005 9 [Program- Law of December 24, 2002, as Modified by Law on Miscellaneous Provisions of July 20, 2005] arts. 474 & 475, http://www.ejustice.just. cgi_loi/ language=fr&la= F&table _ name= loi&cn=2002122431&
&callerlist&F&fromtab=loi&tri=dd+AS+ RANK&rech= 1&numero=1&sql= (text+contains+(%27%27)) #LNKR0183
archived at

Gaceta Oficial


No No information located. paid subscription
Bosnia and Herzegovina

Službeni Glasnik BiH
[Official Herald of Bosnia
and Herzegovina]


Law of Bosnia and Herzegovina on Amending the Law on Official Publication of Acts in Bosnia and Herzegovina of Dec. 30, 2009 (Službeni glasnik BiH, 103/09),
zakonodavstvo/ ranije_usvojeni/ default.aspx? id=26141 &langTag=bs- BA&pril=b
, archived at


Diário Oficial da União e
Diário da Justiça

Yes Decreto No. 4.520, de 16 de Dezembro de 2002, Anexo, art. 1(§2), ccivil_03/ decreto/2002/D4520.htm,
archived at

Derzhaven Vestnik
[State Herald]
DVWeb/ index.faces

Yes Law on the State Herald of Nov. 7, 1995, arts. 1, 3, 12(3), laws/ldoc/ 2133636096 (in Bulgarian), archived at  Article 12(3) provides for publication
online on same day as print edition.  Article 1 states that the Derzhaven Vestnik is the official publication of the Republic of Bulgaria.  According to article 3, the same normative and non- normative acts are published in the print and Internet versions of the Derzhaven Vestnik.

Canada Gazette
gazette/ home-accueil

Yes According to the Canada Gazette website, “[t]he printed version (published between 1841 and 2014) and, since April 1, 2003, the
electronic PDF version of the Canada Gazette are official.  Issues posted on the Canada Gazette Web site in PDF version prior to this date, along with all those posted in HTML format, are not considered official versions.”  Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ), Government of Canada, resources-ressources/ faq-eng.html#i5 (last updated Apr. 15, 2015), archived at  The Canada Gazette Publication Order
(SI/2003-58), regulations/SI-2003-58/20060322/
, archived at,
provided that the Canada Gazette would begin electronic publication in PDF format and be published simultaneously with the print version of the Gazette.  The Canada Gazette Publication Order, 2014
(SI/2014-19), effective April 1, 2014, PDF/SI-2014-19.pdf, archived at,
repealed the provision in the Canada Gazette Publication Order (SI/2003-58) requiring simultaneous publication of the print and electronic versions, but mandated the continued publication of the electronic PDF version of the Gazette.
Cape Verde

Boletim Oficial


Lei No. 87/VII/2011 de 10 de Janeiro, art. 2(5), ?f= Lei+no +87+VII+2011 +de+10+de+
, archived at

paid subscription

Diario Oficial
portal/ page/ portal/
IMPRENTA/ Productos/ Diario_Oficial

No No information located. paid subscription
Costa Rica

La Gaceta

Yes Dictámen No. C-168-210 de la Procuradoría General de la República,
Aug. 11, 2010; Resolución No. 20100112642 de la Sala Constitucional
de la Corte Suprema de Justicia (undated).

(Volumes A, B and C)
(no longer published in print
as of 2008)

Yes Bekendtgørelse Af Lov om Udgivelsen Af En Lovtidende og en Ministerialtidende, Lbk nr 608 af 24/06/2008 Gældende, Forms/ R0710.aspx? id=117310
archived at; Bekendtgørelse om
Lovtidende i elektronisk form, BEK nr 1395 af 12/12/2007 Gældende, R0710.aspx?id=114009,
archived at

Registro Oficial

https://www.registroficial index.php/

No While no law or regulation denoting official status was found, the website represents that those who “[s]ubscribe to the physical or virtual Registro Oficial . . . enjoy the advantages of receiving information from
the only official institution in the country that has the power to publish regulations and laws.”  Registro Oficial, (scroll over “Servicios”), archived at
paid subscription for access via the Registro Oficial [RO] website; free via the National Assembly website, which posts
RO versions of laws in PDF format,
http://www.asamble es/ leyes-aprobadas

Riigi Teataja


Since 2010, the electronic version is the only official publication of the Riigi Teataja.  Riigi Teataja Act of April 22, 2010, §§ 1, 9, 514112013014/consolide, archived at


Suomken Säädöskokoelma
[SDK] (in Finnish); Finlands
Författningssamling [FFS]
(in Swedish)

(in Finnish),

(in Swedish)


1, 12 §§ Laki Suomen sÄÄdÖskokoelmasta [Act on Finnish Gazette] 25.2.2000/ 188, ajantasa/2000/ 20000188 (in Finnish), archived at, as amended by Laki Suomen ÄÄdÖskokoelmasta
annetun lain muuttamisesta Act on Amendment of Act on Finnish Gazette]
(17.12.2010/1197), 20101197
, archived at 7R6S-VXYU; 1, 12 §§ Lag om Finlands
fÖrfattningssamling [Act on Finnish Gazette]
, archived at, as amended by Lag om Ändring av lagen om Finlands fÖrfattningssamling
[Act on Amendment of Act on Finnish Gazette] 
(in Swedish), archived at   As of 2015, the gazette is no longer published in print.  See Lagstiftning, Eduskunta Riksdagen,
tietoaeduskunnasta/ kirjasto/aineistot/ kotimainen_oikeus/ kotimaiset-oikeuslahteet/ Sidor /Lainsaadanto.aspx
(in Swedish; last visited Sept. 28, 2018), archived at

free (also available on the publishers fee-based site,

Journal Officiel de la
République Française


Yes Ordonnance n° 2004-164 du 20 février 2004 relative aux modalités et effets de la publication des lois et de certains actes administratifs [Ordinance No. 2004-164 of February 20, 2004, Regarding the Means
and Effects of the Publication of Laws and Certain Administrative Decisions],
, archived at

Sakartvelos Sakanonmdeblo Matsne [Legislative Herald of Georgia]

Yes Law of the Republic of Georgia No. 1876-IIc of October 22, 2009, On Legal Acts, art. 26,
(in Georgian), archived at

Ephemeris tes Kyverneseos tes
Hellenikes Demokratias

Yes Law No. 3861/2010, art. 7, ¶ 1 & art. 4, ¶ 4, EKED, Part  A:112, July 13, 2010, available at elibrary/ n3861_2010_fek112.pdf, archived at free

(Sections A, B and C)

Yes LÖg um Stjórnartíðindi og LÖgbirtingablað (2005 nr. 15 10. Mars) [Act on Icelandic Gazettes], 134/2005015.html, archived at;
Reglugerð um útgáfu Stjórnartíðinda (958/2005) [Regulation on Publication of the Stjórnartíðinda Gazette] § 1, reglugerdir/
allar/nr/ 958-2005
, archived at

Rūznāmeh-e Rasmī-e
Jumhūrī-e Islāmī-e Īrān
[Official Gazette of the
Islamic Republic of Iran]


An excerpt from the official gazette’s website essentially says that in line with the E-commerce Law of Jan. 7, 2004, and “[i]n order to achieve e-government . . . [,] [a]ll matters relating to the main activities of the
Official Gazette company will be performed electronically.”  Digital Signature: Goals, Official Gazette of the Islamic Republic of Iran,
ShowPage.aspx? PageCode=40
(in Persian;
last visited Sept. 21, 2015), archived at (click “Screen capture”) (citing Electronic Commerce Law of the Islamic Republic of Iran (2003), available in English translation at en/ir/ir008en.pdf, archived at  However, paper versions of the gazette continue to be published for a fee. 


Al-Waqā’i‘ Al-‘Irāqīyah

No No provisions authorizing official status found. free

Gazetta Ufficiale della
Repubblica Italiana

Yes Decreto Legislativo 7 marzo 2005, n. 82, Codice dell’ amministrazione digitale [Legislative Decree No. 82 of March 7, 2005, Code of Digital Administration] art. 20, Gazetta Ufficiale della Repubblica Italiana [Official Gazette of the Italian Republic]
No. 112, May 16, 2005,
uri-res/ N2Ls?urn:nir:stato:decreto.
legislativo: 2005-03-07;82
, archived at (click “Uploaded page”).
free for sixty days; paid subscription thereafter

Al-Jarīdah Al-Rasmīyah
index.php? page_type=gov_

No Law 29 of 1949 grants the right to the Prime Minister to disseminate the official gazette.  Law 29 of 1949,
menu_plc/ arab/ files/الاردن/قانون %20الجريدة %20الرسيمة.htm
, archived at

The Kenya Gazette

Yes While no information expressly stating that electronically published gazettes are considered official in Kenya was located, the Kenya Information and Communications Act states as follows: “Where any law provides that any rule, regulation, order, notification, or any other matter shall be published in the Gazette, then such requirement shall be deemed to have been satisfied if such rule, regulation, order, notification or any other matter is published in the electronic Gazette; Provided that where any rule, regulation, order, by-law, notification or any other matter is published both in the printed and electronic Gazettes, the date of publication shall be deemed to be the date of the Gazette which was first published in any form.”  Information and Communications Act of 1998, § 83T, 11 Laws of Kenya,
Cap. 411A (rev. ed. 2012), available at
kenyalex/ actview.xql?actid=CAP.% 20411A#part_IX
, archived at  In addition, “[w]here any law provides that information or other matter shall be in writing, notwith-
standing anything contained in such law, such requirement shall be deemed to have been
satisfied if such information or matter is . . . rendered or made available in an electronic form . . . and . . . accessible so as to be useable for a subsequent reference.” Id. § 83G; see also A New and Improved Edition
of the Laws of Kenya, Kenya Law (Oct. 11, 2013)
, kenyalawblog/ a-new-and -improved-edition- of-the-laws-of-kenya-2/, archived at

Gazeta Zyrtare e Republikës
së Kosovës

Yes Law of the Republic of Kosovo No. 03/L-190 of June 4, 2010, on the Official Gazette, art. 4, available at
common/ docs/ligjet / 2010-190-eng.pdf
, archived at 3CUB-UP9M (in Albanian).  Article 4 provides for identical publication of the official gazette in printed and electronic formats, and states that both versions are equal.

Al-Jarīdah Al-Rasmīyah
arabic/ landing.aspx?

No No provisions authorizing official status found. free

Al-Jarīdah Al-Rasmīyah

Yes Art. 1 of Law No. 8 of 2011 stipulates that an official gazette issued in Arabic shall be established in Libya with a website on which an electronic copy is published; article 6 of the Law stipulates that the issues of the
official gazette published in accordance with this Law are considered confirmation of the veracity of what they contain without the need of any other evidence.  Law No. 8 of 2011 on the Organization of the Official
Gazette, available at /ar/node/31624, archived at H9PG-PFUZ.   This could be interpreted as giving the electronic copy the same status as the printed one.


Yes Kundmachungsgesetz [Public Announcement Act], Landesgesetzblatt [LGBl.] 1985, No. 41, t. 7, lilexprod/ showpdf.jsp? media= pdf&lgblid= 1985041000&version=0, archived at free

Valstybės Zinios

http://www.valstybes vpp3/lt

Yes Law of the Republic of Lithuania No. XI-2220 of September 18, 2012, on the Legislative Framework art. 26, inter3 /dokpaieska.showdoc_l?p_ id=433088&p_query =&p_tr2=2,
archived at

Mémorial (A or B) vpp3/lt

  Loi du 23 décembre 2016 concernant le Journal officiel du Grand-Duché de Luxembourg [Law of 23 December 2016 Regarding the Official Gazette of the Grand-Duchy of Luxembourg], free

Diario Oficial de la

Yes Ley del Diario Oficial de la Federación y Gacetas Gubernamentales [Law on the Federal Official Gazette] arts. 5o, 7o. Bis, 10o. Bis, Diario Oficial de la FederaciÓn, Dec. 24, 1986, available as amended through June 2012 on the website of Mexico’s House of Representatives, at
pdf/ 75.pdf
, archived at

Službeni list Crne Gore

.me/ Naslovna.aspx

Yes Law on Publication of Laws and Other Acts of Jan. 23, 2008, arts. 18, 19 & 21, SluzbeniListDetalji.aspx ?tag= {0589F7B1-
CDC2-4391 -AB42-67FE32AEE5B6}
(in Bosnian), archived at
(click “Uploaded page”).  Article 18 states that the official gazette, Sluzbeni List, is published in electronic and print formats; article 19 says both formats are identical.

Al-Jarīdah Al-Rasmīyah

No No provisions authorizing official status found. free

Staatsblad van het
Koninkrijk der



Yes Official for documents with a date of July 1, 2009, and thereafter.  Besluit van 21 januari 2009 tot uitvoering van de ekendmakingswet (Bekendmakingsbesluit) [Decree of 21 January 2009 to Implement the Publication Act (Publication Decree), Stb. No. 30, 2009, Nota van Toelichting [Explanatory Note] 1, second para., https://zoek.officielebekend stb-2009-30.html
(has appended notes explaining that the gazettes will no longer be issued in print, but only in electronic form), archived at (click
“Screen capture”); Bekendmakingswet [Publication Act] (Feb. 4, 1988), as amended, arts. 1, 8, & 10a, BWBR0004287 /geldigheidsdatum_25-08-2015, archived at
New Zealand

New Zealand Gazette

Yes The New Zealand Gazette is now only published online and the Gazette website is the authoritative source.  Press Release, Department of Internal Affairs, The New Zealand Gazette Moves into the Digital Age
(Oct. 29, 2014),
ec1ed19313c909eccc257d7f007e0659! OpenDocument
, archived at

Norsk Lovtidend
(Avd.[sections] I & II)
register/ lovtidend

Yes ov om Norsk Lovtidend m.v. [Act Regarding Norwegian Gazette] (LOV-1993-06-11-83), requires laws to be published in Norsk Lovtidend.  Since 2001 Norsk Lovtidend is published as the official version online.  Om Lovdata,,
(last visited Sept. 23, 2015), archived at

Al-Jarīdah Al-Rasmīyah

No All laws, regulations, and ministerial resolutions are published on the Ministry of Legal Affairs website; when links are followed, the Gazette appears in its original format.  Ministry of Legal Affairs, officalgazette.aspx (in Arabic; last visited Sept. 22, 2015), archived at  Gazette posted in PDF pages; paper version still published as well. free
Palestinian Authority (West Bank)

Al-Jarīdah Al-Rasmīyah
_dataentry &pid

No Article 7 of Law 8 of 2008 grants the Department of Fatwa and Legislation
the right to disseminate the official gazette; the electronic copy is published
by that department but at present contains laws only through 2012; the paper edition is more current; Department of Fatwa and Legislation website, index.php?option=com_dataentry&
pid=8&Itemid =27&des_id=1238
(last visited Sept. 22, 2015), archived at H689-CV6C
.  No clear statement regarding official status.  Also, online version not updated— only current through about 2012.

Gaceta Oficial Digital



Ley 53 que dicta normas para la modernización de la Gaceta Oficial y
adopta otras disposiciones [Law 53 on the Modernization of the Official
Gazette], art. 2, Gaceta Oficial, Dec. 29, 2005, available at
(last visited Aug. 19 2015), archived at  The introduction to the Gaceta site says the online Gaceta “tiene validez jurídica desde el 3 de Julio 2006 [has legal validity from July 3, 2006]” per Ley 53. Gaceta Oficial,, archived at


Gaceta Oficial


No Decreto 4526, art. 4, Gaceta Oficial, June 16, 2010, at 134, archivos/ documentos/decreto_4526 _ dewk4x87.pdf
, archived at  Clearly authorizes electronic publication and distribution but doesn’t specifically say
that e-version is official or authoritative.

El Peruano
pe/ edicion


Ley 29091, art. 5, El Peruano, Sept. 26, 2007, images/ transparencia/datos_generales/ docs_programa/ Ley_290991.pdf, archived at


Dziennik Ustaw
[Diary of Laws] pl

Yes Law on Publication of Normative and Other Legal Acts of July 29, 2011, art. 20.17(2), Dz. U, 2011, No. 1172,
2011/ 1172/1
(in Polish), archived at 
(“The day of official publication of an act is the day of its publication in electronic format on the website of the Diary.”).

Diário da República

Yes Lei No. 74/98 de 11 de Novembro, as amended by Lei No. 26/2006 de 30
de Junho, art. 1(5), file/357421, archived at

Al-Jarīdah Al-Rasmīyah

No Gazette website states that electronic version is as authentic and reliable as the paper version, but not considered official for court purposes.  Questions and Answers, Qatar Legal (Al-Meezan),
(in Arabic; last visited Sept. 22, 2015), archived at 6C7J-CC9H (click “Screen capture”).

Sobranie Zakonodatelstva
Rossiiskoi Federatsii
[Collection of Russian
Federation Legislation]

Yes Decree of the RF President No. 662 of April 1, 1994, on Publication and Entering into Force of Federal Laws, para. 2, Rossiiskaia Gazeta, No. 64, Apr. 6, 1994 (in Russian) (“Texts of official laws published in electronic format by the Federal Protection Service of the Russian Federation
[which runs government websites] are official.”).
San Marino Bollettino Ufficiale:  Repubblica di San Marino
Yes Per “Legge Qualificata N. 2/2010” of January 1, 2012, the Official Bulletin shall be electronic rather than in printed/hard copy.

See Legge Qualificata 26 Ottobre 2010 N.2 (PDF). See also the regulation Regolamento Attuativo della Legge Qualificata 26 OTTOBRE 2010 N.2

“Riforma del Bollettino Ufficiale della Repubblica di San Marino” (PDF).
free (administrative and advertisement sections by paid subscription)

Službeni Glasnik
[Official Herald]

Yes PDF versions of electronic gazette are official.  Law No. 45 of May 22, 2013, on Publication of Laws and Other Regulations and Acts, art. 26, archive/files/cir/ pdf/ zakoni/2013/ 1030-13.pdf (in Serbian), archived at

Uradni List
[Government Gazette]

Yes Law Amending the Law on the Government Gazette of the Republic of Slovenia art. 1.3, Uradni List 109/09, 2009/Ur/u2009109.pdf #!/u2009109-pdf (in Slovenian), archived at
.  Article 1.3 states, “[t]he official gazette is published in electronic format containing an electronic certificate of authenticity.”
South Africa

Republic of South Africa
Government Gazette
Gazette/ Pages/default.aspx


No No information expressly stating that this is official source was located.  It appears that this site makes available only gazettes issued in the last three years. free

Boletín Oficial del Estado

Yes Ley 11/2007 de Acceso Electrónico de los Ciudadanos a los Servicios Públicos [Law 11/2007 on Online Access of Citizens to Public Services] art. 11, Boletin Oficial del Estado, June 23, 2007, act.php?id= BOE-A-2007-12352, archived at

The Office of President,
Republic of China (Taiwan)
Gazette (in Chinese)

(containing PDFs of the
print gazettes)

No The Electronic Signatures Act, which governs the status of electronic documents, may indirectly authorize the online gazette’s official status: “Where a law or regulation requires a document to be retained, if the
content of the document can be presented in its integrity and remains accessible for subsequent reference, the requirement is satisfied by retaining an electronic record.”  Electronic Signatures Act art. 6, LawClass/ LawAll.aspx?PCode= J0080037
(in English translation), archived at

Al-Rā’id Al-Rasmī lil-Jumhūrīat

No No provisions authorizing official status found. free

T.C. Resmî Gazete
.tr/ default.aspx


No provision explicitly indicating that the electronic version is official could be located.  A note on the homepage of the Official Gazette of the Republic of Turkey states that the official gazette prepared by the Prime Ministry General Directorate of Legislative Development and Publication
is transferred simultaneously to the Internet.  T.C. Resmî Gazete, default.aspx (last visited Aug. 26, 2015),
archived at


Diario Oficial

No Ley 16736, art. 341(art. 2(C)), Diario Oficial, Jan. 12, 1996, AccesoTextoLey.asp? Ley=16736&Anchor
, archived at


Gaceta Oficial

http://www.imprentanacional web/ gaceta_oficial/inicio.php


No information located.

paid subscription

Back to Top

* This column of the chart identifies thirty-four countries that have affirmatively provided, through legislation or other official means, that the online version of their gazette is considered official. Only positive instances where the official status of the online gazette has been affirmed by the government are included.

Last Updated: 12/31/2020