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France: Court Finds Government Failed to Live Up to Carbon Emissions Reduction Objectives

(Mar. 8, 2021) On February 3, 2021, the Administrative Tribunal of Paris issued a judgment finding the French government liable for failing to live up to its own carbon emissions reduction objectives. This decision came in response to a lawsuit brought by four nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in March 2019, in which they sought to have […]

European Union: European Court of Justice Upholds Flemish Requirement to Stun Animals Before Slaughter

(Dec. 31, 2020) On December 17, 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union ruled that a decree requiring that animals undergo a reversible (temporary) stunning procedure before slaughter is not an illegal infringement of freedom of religion as guaranteed by the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union. At issue was a […]

France: Parliament Approves Extension of Paternity Leave

(Dec. 9, 2020) The French Parliament has approved legislation that would double paternity leave, from 14 days to 28 days, including seven mandatory days. This new rule is included in the bill to fund social security for 2021, article 35 of which amends the French Labor Code and other relevant texts to increase paternity leave. […]

France: Constitutional Court Finds Arrested Persons Have Constitutional Right to Challenge Conditions of Incarceration

(Oct. 28, 2020) In a decision of October 2, 2020, the Conseil constitutionnel (Constitutional Council), France’s high court for constitutional questions, found that the absence of judicial recourse for persons under arrest to challenge their conditions of incarceration is unconstitutional. This decision was given in response to two questions prioritaires de constitutionalité (QPC) (priority question […]

France: French Government Announces Ban on Wild Animal Performances and Mink Farming

(Oct. 7, 2020) On September 29, 2020, the French government announced several measures intended to improve the welfare of wild animals in captivity. According to a speech delivered that day by Minister of Environmental Transition Barbara Pompili, the farming of mink for their fur will be banned by 2025. No new mink farms will be […]

France: Council of State Confirms That Masks Can Be Made Mandatory under Certain Conditions

(Sept. 30, 2020) On September 6, 2020, France’s Conseil d’Etat (Council of State) issued two decisions confirming that government authorities may impose mandatory mask-wearing in certain geographic areas, but under certain conditions. The Conseil d’Etat is, in addition to being an advisory body for the government, the highest jurisdiction for administrative law. The decisions in […]

France: Constitutional Court Strikes Down Special Security Measures for Individuals Convicted of Terrorism

(Sept. 30, 2020) On August 7, 2020, the French Conseil constitutionnel (Constitutional Council) struck down most of a bill that aimed to impose special security measures on individuals after their release from prison for participating in terrorism-related activities. This bill, which was first submitted on March 11, 2020, was adopted by the French Parliament on […]

France: Possession of Small Amounts of Drugs Now Subject to Fines

(Sept. 23, 2020) On September 1, 2020, a French law giving police officers authorization to issue on-the-spot fines to those caught in possession of small amounts of certain drugs entered into force. The new measure, which was passed in 2019 by the French legislature to amend article L3421-1 of the Public Health Code, is by […]

France: Parliament Adopts Law against Domestic Violence

(Aug. 7, 2020) On July 21, 2020, the French Senate adopted a bill that aims to better protect victims of domestic violence. The National Assembly had adopted the same text on July 16, 2020. The bill was signed into law on July 30, 2020. This new law contains several measures aimed at detecting and fighting […]