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France: European Court Finds France in Violation of Air Quality Rules

(Nov. 25, 2019) The Court of Justice of the European Union (EU) ruled on October 24, 2019, that France has “systematically and persistently exceeded the annual limit value for nitrogen dioxide since 1 January 2010.” This decision was taken on the basis of three European directives: Council Directive 96/62/EC of 27 September 1996 on ambient […]

European Union: New Rules to Fight Crimes Against the EU’s Budget Take Effect

(Aug. 7, 2019) On July 6, 2019, Directive (EU) 2017/1371 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 5 July 2017 on the Fight Against Fraud to the Union’s Financial Interests by Means of Criminal Law (PIF Directive) took effect. The PIF Directive is part of the European Commission’s Anti-Fraud Strategy to strengthen the […]

European Union: New Directive on Work-Life Balance for Parents and Caregivers

(July 29, 2019) On July 12, 2019, the European Union (EU) published a Directive on Work-Life Balance for Parents and Carers in the Official Journal of the European Union (O.J.). (Directive (EU) 2019/1158 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 20 June 2019 on Work-Life Balance for Parents and Carers and Repealing Council […]

European Union: European Court of Justice Rules on German Highway Toll for Passenger Vehicles

(July 11, 2019) On June 18, 2019, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) held that the German highway toll for passenger vehicles is incompatible with European Union (EU) law, in particular with the principles of the free movement of goods and the freedom to provide services. It stated that the toll in combination with the […]

European Union: Commission Adopts Rules on Operating Drones

(June 14, 2019) On May 24, 2019, the European Commission adopted an implementing regulation that regulates the operation of commercial and recreational unmanned aircraft systems (UASs), commonly referred to as drones. Among other things, the implementing regulation requires operational authorizations and registration of UASs and their operators. (Commission Implementing Regulation on the Rules and Procedures […]

European Union: European Court of Justice Rules on German Public Broadcasting Contribution

(Jan. 7, 2019) On December 13, 2018, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) held that a “contribution” required to be paid by all German households to public broadcasters is compatible with European Union (EU) law, in particular with the rules on preferential state aid. The request for a preliminary ruling was submitted by a judge […]

European Union: New Rules Prohibit Unjustified Geo-Blocking

(Dec. 19, 2018) On December 3, 2018, new rules to prevent unjustified geo-blocking and other forms of discrimination based on nationality, place of residence, or place of establishment took effect in the European Union (EU). (Regulation (EU) 2018/302 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 28 February 2018 on Addressing Unjustified Geo-Blocking and […]

European Union: European Court of Justice Rules on Religious Employment Discrimination

(Oct. 3, 2018) On September 11, 2018, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) held that dismissing a Catholic employee in a managerial position at a Catholic hospital for remarrying in a civil ceremony could constitute discrimination. According to the Court, religion or belief must be a genuine, legitimate, and justified occupational requirement in light of […]

European Union: European Court of Justice Rules Sellers Must Inform Consumers of Fee-Incurring Preloaded and Preinstalled Services on SIM Cards

(Sept. 28, 2018) On September 13, 2018, the European Court of Justice (ECJ) held that selling SIM cards with preinstalled and preloaded fee-incurring services constitutes an aggressive unfair commercial practice. It stated that consumers must be informed in advance of such services so that they can make a free choice. The ECJ concluded that such […]

European Union: New Rules for Money Market Funds

(Aug. 31, 2018) On July 21, 2018, new rules to make money market funds (MMFs) more resilient against financial market difficulties, reduce the risk of runs, and limit cross-border contagion began applying to newly issued MMFs in the European Union (EU). Existing MMFs must show compliance by January 21, 2019. MMFs are mutual funds that […]