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Russia: Higher Education Reform

(Nov. 2, 2007) On October 11, 2007, the Federation Council (legislature) of Russia passed a law that introduced a two-tier higher education system. As of 2009, the existing five-year university education system will be replaced by a "four plus two" system – four years for a bachelor's degree and two for a masters, although specialist […]

Russia: Compensation for Victims of Federal Troops in Chechnya

(Nov. 2, 2007) On October 4, 2007, the European Court of Human Rights (ECHR) issued a ruling under which Russia is obligated to pay €200,000 (about US$285,000) to three Chechen women who suffered from the unwarranted and indiscriminate use of force by the Russian military. This is a record high amount of compensation ever awarded […]