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France: Watchdog Agency Fines Apple for Deceitful Practice

(Feb. 28, 2020) On February 7, 2020, a French consumer protection agency fined Apple for 25 million euros (approximately US$27.4 million) for failing to inform consumers that updating the iPhone’s operating system may cause some older models to slow down. The Direction générale de la concurrence, de la consommation et de la répression des fraudes […]

Germany: Federal Court of Justice Rules on Legal Tech

(Dec. 23, 2019) On November 27, 2019, the German Federal Court of Justice (Bundesgerichtshof, BGH), Germany’s supreme court for civil and criminal cases, held that the services provided by the company Lexfox, which is registered as a legal services provider for collection services, did not violate the German Legal Services Act. The decision was highly […]

Germany: Court Prohibits Legal Contract Generator Platform

(Oct. 31, 2019) On October 8, 2019, the Higher Regional Court of Cologne held that the services provided by a legal contract generator platform violated the German Legal Services Act. It instructed the owner of the contract platform to cease its operations and stop advertising it. Applicable Law The Legal Services Act defines a legal […]

Liechtenstein: Parliament Adopts Blockchain Act

(Oct. 30, 2019) On October 3, 2019, the Parliament of Liechtenstein unanimously adopted the Token and TT-Service Provider Act (TVTG) (“Blockchain Act”), a “comprehensive regulation of the token economy.” The Act has been substantially revised since the conclusion of the consultation process that ran from August to November 2018. The Blockchain Act is subject to […]

Liechtenstein: Government Adopts Consultation Report on Draft Blockchain Act

(Sept. 20, 2018) On August 28, 2018, the government of Liechtenstein adopted a consultation report on a proposed Blockchain Act. The goal of the Blockchain Act is to take advantage of the potential of blockchain technology, create legal certainty for market participants, protect users of blockchain technology from potential abuse, and reduce potential reputation risks […]

Malta: Government Passes Three Laws to Encourage Blockchain Technology

(Aug. 31, 2018) On July 4, 2018, the Maltese government enacted three laws whose goal is to make Malta a haven for projects that rely on blockchain and other distributed ledger technology (DLT). The Malta Digital Innovation Authority Act (MDIA Act), Innovative Technology Arrangements and Services Act (ITAS Act), and Virtual Financial Assets Act (VFA […]

Iran: New Copyright Law to Be Submitted to Parliament

(Nov. 7, 2017) Iran’s Ministry of Communications and Information Technology has announced it is working closely with the Parliament Research Center and other relevant agencies to formulate a new copyright bill for submission to Parliament. (Minister of Communications and Information Technology: Copyright Law Is Outdated; New Copyright Law to Be Sent to Parliament, IRANIAN LABOUR […]

Japan: Chemical Substances Control Law Amended

(Sept. 6, 2017) Japan’s Chemical Substances Control Law (CSCL) aims to prevent environmental pollution caused by chemical substances that pose a risk to human health and interfere with the habitat and healthy development of flora and fauna.  (Act on the Evaluation of Chemical Substances and Regulation of Their Manufacture etc., Act No. 117 of 1973, […]