This chart covers extradition rules for citizens in 157 jurisdictions. Note that many countries will not extradite anyone for political crimes or will not extradite an individual to a country that imposes capital punishment. Those two restrictions were not considered in the making of this chart, as they generally apply to requests to extradite both citizens and foreigners.
Full Report (PDF, 400KB)
Extradition of Citizens Map (PDF, 1.75MB)
Infographic Map (PDF, 90MB)
Prepared July 2013
|COUNTRY||GENERALLY ALLOW||DENY||SPECIAL CASES||RELEVANT LAW|
|Afghanistan||Only allowed if provided for in a treaty.||Constitution of Afghanistan, art. 28, Official Gazette No.
818 (Jan. 28, 2004), available at http://www.asianlii .org/
|Algeria||X||Criminal Procedure Code, of 1966, art. 696,
http://www.joradp.dz/TRV /FPPenal.pdf (in French).
|Angola||X||Constitution, art. 70(1), http://www .governo.gov.ao/
Constituicao.aspx (in Portuguese).
|Argentina||Extradition of nationals is allowed but the suspect has the right to choose to be tried by Argentine courts; if that option is chosen, extradition is denied.||International Cooperation in Criminal Matters and
Extradition Law No. 24767, Dec. 18, 1996, art. 12,
anexos/40000-44999/41442/norma.htm (in Spanish).
|Armenia||X||Law on the Citizenship of the Republic of Armenia, Nov., 6,
1999, art. 5, http://parliament.am/legislation.php?sel=
|Australia||X||Extradition Act 1988 (Cth) ss 6 & 7, http://www.comlaw.
|Austria||Only within the framework of the European Arrest Warrant for otherwise qualifying offenses committed in the requesting Member State of the European Union, but only if Austria would exercise criminal jurisdiction over equivalent offense.||Council Framework Decision of 13 June 2002 on the
European Arrest Warrant and the Surrender Procedures
Between Member States (hereinafter EAW Decision), No.
2002/584/JHA:, 2002 O.J. (L 190) 1, http://eur-lex .europa.
EN:NOT; Auslieferungs-und Rechtshilfegesetz (Extradition
and Mutual Assistance Act) Dec. 4, 1979, Bundesgesetzblatt
1979/529, as amended, § 12 (Constitutional provision),
Bundesnormen&Gesetzesnummer=10002441 (click on link
for 529/1979), in conjunction with Bundesgesetz über die
Justizielle Zusammenarbeit mit den Mitgliedstaaten der EU
(Federal Act on Judicial Cooperation with the Member
States of the European Union), Bundesgesetzblatt I 2004/36,
as amended, § 5 (Constitutional provision),
(click on link for 26/2004).
|Azerbaijan||X||Constitution of Azerbaijan, Nov. 12, 1995, art 53.2,
|Bahrain||X||Law 46-2002 of Criminal Procedures, art. 415(a),
=ArabicLaw&ID=156 (in Arabic).
|Barbados||X||Barbados, Extradition Act, L.R.O. 1985, Cap. 189, Laws of
Barbados, available at, http://www.oas.org /juridico/MLA/
|Belarus||Only allowed based on international treaties to which Belarus is a party.||Constitution of the Republic of Belarus, Mar. 15, 1994,
art. 10, http://house.gov .by/index.php/,2438,,,,1,,,0.html.
|Belgium||Nationals can only be extradited within the framework of the EAW Decision, and provided they are returned to Belgium for the execution of any prison sentence.||Loi sur les extraditions [Extradition Law], Mar. 15, 1874,
as amended, art. 1, 2 Les Codes Larcier Droit Penal 684
(2010); Loi relative au mandat d’arrêt européen [Law on the
European Arrest Warrant], Dec. 19, 2003, 2 Les Codes
Larcier Droit Penal 701 (2010).
|Bermuda||X||Extradition Act 1877, Laws of Bermuda tit. 8, Item 36
(1989 Rev.), available at http://www.bermudalaws .bm/
|Benin||X||Extradition Treaty of the Economic Community of West
African States, Aug. 1, 1994, art. 10, http://www.icpat .org/
|Bolivia||X||Penal Code of Bolivia art. 3, available at
_bol1.pdf (in Spanish).
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||X||Criminal Procedure Code of Bosnia and Herzegovina, 2003,
art. 415, § 1-a, available at http://www.ohr.int/ohr-dept/
|Botswana||Not unless the requesting country has laws allowing reciprocity.||Extradition Act 18 of 1990, § 8, II Laws of Botswana,
Cap. 09:03 (rev. ed. 2010), available at
%2018%20of%201990%20.pdf (in the link provided, the
relevant portion is § 7).
|Brazil||X||Constitution art. 5(LI), http://www .planalto.gov.br/ccivil
|Bulgaria||Only allowed based on reciprocity established by a ratified, published, and effective treaty of Bulgaria.||Constitution of the Republic of Bulgaria, July 12, 1991, art.
|Burkina Faso||X||Extradition Treaty of the Economic Community of West
African States, Aug. 1, 1994, art. 10, http://www.icpat .org/
download /21-ecowas-extradition-document&sa =U&ei=
Procédure Pénale [Code of Criminal Procedure] (in French).
|Burundi||Allowed only on the basis of a treaty provision.||Code de Procédure Pénale [Code of Criminal Procedure]
art. 15, available at http://www.droit-afrique.com/images/
(last visited June 24, 2013).
|Cameroon||X||Code de Procédure Pénale [Code of Criminal Procedure],
2007, art. 644.
|Canada||Extradition of Canadian citizens could be considered unconstitutional “if Canadian authorities failed, before extraditing the person, to determine whether prosecution in Canada was a ‘realistic option’.”||Extradition Act, S.C. 1999, c. 18, § 3, http://laws-lois.
justice.gc.ca/PDF/E-23.01.pdf; Ch. 42, “Extradition of
Canadian Citizens for Acts Which Could Be Prosecuted in
Canada,” in The Federal Prosecution Service Deskbook
|Cape Verde||Allowed for terrorism and international organized crime based on reciprocity and with guarantees of a fair trial.||Constitution art. 38, http://www .parlamento.cv/
leisrepublica.aspx (in Portuguese).
|Central African Republic||X||Loi 10.002 du 6 janvier 2010 portant sur le Code de
Procédure Pénale [Law 10.002 of Jan. 6, 2010 on the Code
of Criminal Procedure] art. 379, Journal Officiel de la
Republique Centrafricaine [Official Gazette of the Central
African Republic], available at http://www.ilo.org/dyn /
|Chad||X||Code Procedure Pénale [Code of Criminal Procedure]
art. 445 (in French).
|Chile||X||Código Procesal Penal [Code of Criminal Procedure],
Oct. 12, 2000, art. 440, http://www.leychile.cl/Navegar
?idNorma=176595&idPart=0; Código de Procedimiento
Penal [Code of Criminal Procedure], Feb. 19, 1906, art.
644, http://www.leychile.cl/Navegar ?idNorma=22960
|China (People’s Republic of)||X||Extradition Law of the People’s Republic of China,
Dec. 28, 2000, art. 8, http://www.gov.cn/gongbao/content /
2001/content_61248.htm (in Chinese).
|Colombia||X||1991 Political Constitution, as amended by Legislative Act 1
of 1997, art. 35, http://www.secretariasenado.gov.co/
#35 (in Spanish).
|Comoros||X||Loi du 10 mars 1927, relative a l’extradition des étrangers
[Law of Mar. 10, 1927, on Extradition of Foreigners], art. 5,
pratiques_n.1.pdf (see p. 3, “droit applicable”
|Congo||Criminal procedure law refers only to extradition of foreigners; in some treaties Congo specifies that its citizens not be extradited and instead be tried in Congo.||Décret du 12 avril 1886 relatif à l’extradition [Decree of
12 April 1886 relating to extradition], available at
avril_1886_extradition.pdf; African Union Convention on
Preventing and Combating Corruption, Dec 30, 2003, art
15-6, available at http://www.icpc.ma/wps/wcm/
(copy/paste URL into browser).
|(Dem. Republic of the)|
|Cook Islands||The Attorney-General may refuse to extradite a national of the Cook Islands and instead prosecute and punish the person in the Cook Islands.||Extradition Act 2003, § 62(2)(a), available at
|Costa Rica||Allowed as governed by treaties.||Costa Rica Constitution, La Gaceta, Nov. 7, 1949, art. 31,
available at http://www.oas.org/dil/esp/Constitucion_
Costa_Rica.pdf (in Spanish).
|Croatia||X||Constitution of the Republic of Croatia, July 6, 2010, art. 9,
|Cuba||X||Criminal Code art. 6.1, Gaceta Oficial de la Republica de
|Czech Republic||Citizens cannot be extradited to a foreign state for criminal prosecution or to serve a sentence; they may be transferred to another Member State of the European Union only on the basis of the EAW Decision.||Criminal Code of the Czech Republic, Jan. 8, 2009, art. 10,
available at http:// www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/text.jsp?
file_id=248531 (in Czech).
Allowed based on the EAW Decision or the European Convention on Extradition. Also, the Minister of Justice may allow extradition if there is an agreement between Denmark and the requesting country, if either (1) the person concerned has resided in the requesting state in the two years prior to commission of the offense, and an act corresponding to the offense for which extradition is sought is punishable by imprisonment for at least one year under Danish law; or (2) the act, if handled by a Danish court, could result in a higher penalty than four years of imprisonment. If there is no such agreement between Denmark and the requesting state, the Minister of Justice may decide to extradite a Danish citizen if the above conditions are met and special law enforcement conditions are therefore communicated.
Denmark made a Declaration with reference to art. 6 of the Convention on Extradition, which gives a contracting party the right to refuse extradition of its “nationals,” indicating that the term “national” for purposes of the Convention means “a national of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway or Sweden, or a person domiciled in one of those countries.”
|Bekendtgørelse af lov om udlevering af lovovertrædere
[Decree on Law on Extradition of Offenders], Law No. 833
(Aug. 25, 2005, as last amended by Law No. 428 of
May 1, 2013), kap. 2 § 2, https://www.retsinformation.dk /
Forms/r0710.aspx?id=2161; “Declaration Contained in a
Letter from the Permanent Representative of Denmark, Dated
12 November 2003, Registered at the Secretariat General on
25 November 2003,” and “Declaration Contained in a Letter
from the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Denmark, Dated 30
August 1962, Handed to the Secretary General at the Time of
Deposit of the Instrument of Ratification, on 13 September
1962,” List of Declarations Made with Respect to Treaty
No. 024 [European Convention on Extradition]: Denmark,
Council of Europe, http://conventions .coe.int/Treaty/
&CL=ENG&VL=1 (status as of June 19, 2013).
|Dominican Republic||Allowed only when authorized by the judicial branch, as provided by law and current extradition treaties.||Constitution art. 46(1), Jan. 26, 2010,
Constitucion.pdf (in Spanish).
|Ecuador||X||Law on Extradition, Aug. 18, 2000, art. 4,
legislacion/leg_extradiccion.htm (in Spanish).
|Egypt||X||Penal Code, July 31, 1937, art. 3, available at
ArabicLaw&ID=20 (in Arabic; stating that Egyptians who
commit crimes abroad will be tried in Egypt).
|El Salvador||Only permitted when established in a treaty.||Constitution, Dec. 16, 1983, Diario Oficial, art. 28,
constitucion-de-la-republica (in Spanish).
|Eritrea||X||Transitional Penal Code of Eritrea § 21 (composed of the
Ethiopian Penal Code of 1957, No. 158, 1957, as amended
in 1991, through the Transitional Penal Law of Eritrea
Proclamation, No. 4, 1991, 1 Gazette of Eritrean Laws,
No. 1 (Sept. 15, 1991)), 1957 Code available on the
Ethiopian Legal Brief website, at http://chilot.files.
(1991 amending document issued only in Tigrigna, one of
Eritrea’s local languages, and not available in electronic
|Estonia||Allowed only under conditions prescribed by an international treaty and pursuant to procedure provided by such treaty and by law. Extradition must be decided by the government of the Republic. Those under an extradition order have the right to contest the extradition in an Estonian court. As to the Declaration to the European Convention on Extradition, Estonia reserves the right to refuse extradition of nationals who have not consented to the procedure.||Constitution of the Republic of Estonia, June 28, 1992, art.
36, http://www .president.ee/en/republic-of-estonia/
the-constitution/; List of Declarations Made with Respect to
Treaty No. 024 [European Convention on Extradition]:
Estonia, Council of Europe, http:// conventions.coe.int/
8&DF=&CL=ENG&VL=1 (status as of June 18, 2013).
|Ethiopia||X||Criminal Code of the Federal Democratic Republic of
Ethiopia, Proclamation No. 414/2004, May 9, 2005, art. 21,
available at http://www. wipo.int/edocs/lexdocs/laws/en/
|Fiji||A judge may refuse to extradite a citizen of Fiji.||Extradition Act 2003, § 18(2)(b), available at
|Finland||Allowed only if there is a law that provides for extradition or transfer of a citizen “due to a criminal act, for the purpose of legal proceedings, or in order to enforce a decision concerning the custody or care of a child” to a country where the person’s human rights and legal protection are guaranteed. One such law provides for extradition to other EU Member States.||Constitution of Finland, June 11, 1999 (731/1999,
amendments up to 1112/2011 included), § 9 ¶ 3,
en19990731.pdf; Act on Extradition on the Basis of an
Offence Between Finland and Other Member States of the
European Union, Dec. 30, 2003, Law No. 1286/2003,
|France||Only allowed within the framework of the EAW Decision for otherwise qualifying offenses committed in the requesting Member State of the European Union country. In such cases, judges should grant extradition if the requesting country has a reciprocity process with France and if, in the case of sentencing to a penalty involving deprivation of liberty, the citizen can serve the sentence in France. In addition, France would have to exercise criminal jurisdiction over an equivalent offense.||
Criminal Procedure Code, art 696-4, available at
|Gabon||No statement on extradition in criminal procedure legislation; Gabon is member of the Communaute Economique et Monetaire de L’afrique Central (CEMAC) [Monetary and Economic Community of Central Africa]. No extradition of citizens between members, including Cameron, Central African Republic, Congo (Dem. Rep.), Chad, Gabon, and Guinea Bissau.||Treaty Communaute Economique et Monetaire de L’afrique
Central, Accord d’Extradition entre les Etats Membres de la
CEMAC art. 5, Jan. 28, 2004, available at
|Gambia||X||Extradition Act No. 10, 1986, §§ 2, 5 & 7, Laws of the
Gambia, Cap. 12:01 (rev. ed. 2009).
|Georgia||Only allowed as prescribed in a treaty; the decision on extradition may be appealed in court.||Constitution of Georgia, Aug. 24, 1995, art. 13, § 4,
|Germany||Allowed only in accordance with the EAW Decision and then only if the deed has a significant connection to the requesting state and the fugitive will be allowed to serve the penalty in Germany.||Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany § 16,
über die internationale Rechtshilfe in Strafsachen
[Act on Mutual International Assistance in Criminal
Matters], repromulgated June 27, 1994, Bundesgesetzblatt I
at 1537, as amended, § 80, http://www.gesetze-im-
|Ghana||X||Extradition Act No. 22, 1960, § 3, 4 Laws of Ghana
(rev. ed. 2004).
|Greece||Only allowed under the EAW Decision, to EU countries which have also implemented the European Arrest Warrant.||EAW Decision, supra, 2002 O.J. (L 190) 1; Law
No 3251.2004, Ephemeris tes kyverneseos tes Hellenikes
Demokratias, 2004, A: 127.
|Guatemala||Only allowed based on treaties and conventions regarding crimes against humanity or against international law, and in such cases, the death penalty is not permitted.||Constitution, June 3, 1985, arts. 18 & 27, Diario de Centro
América, http:// www.congreso.gob.gt/manager/images/
|Guinea||X||Code de Procédure Pénale [Code of Criminal Procedure],
adopted Dec. 31, 1998, art. 657, available at
http://www.refworld.org/docid/44a3e20b4.html (in French).
|Guinea Bissau||X||Constitution, 1996, art. 43(1), http://www.anpguinebissau.
org/leis/constituicao (in Portuguese).
Fugitive Offenders, Laws of Guyana, Cap. 10:04, available
|Honduras||X||Constitution, Jan. 20, 1982, art. 101, La Gaceta,
%20de%20la%20República%20(09).pdf (in Spanish).
Only allowed if the person sought for extradition is also a citizen of another state and has permanent residence in a foreign state. In addition, a citizen may be tried in Hungary for a crime committed elsewhere and then sent to the requesting country to carry out the sentence.
The surrender of a Hungarian national and resident who is the subject of a European arrest warrant for the purposes of prosecution may be subject to the condition that the issuing judicial authority give adequate assurance that, where a sentence has been passed or a detention order has been made, the person may if he or she desires be returned to Hungary in order to serve the custodial sentence or detention order there.
|Act XXXVIII, 1996, on International Legal Assistance in
Criminal Matters § 13, July 15, 1996, available at
http:// www.refworld.org/cgi-bin/texis/vtx /rwmain?page=
&docid=3ed4bd784&skip=0; Act CXXX, 2003, On the
Co-operation with the Member States of the European Union
in Criminal Matters §§ 3 & 5, http:// www.consilium.
Criminal Code, Act. IV of 1978, § 6, available at
Code of Criminal Procedure, Act XIX of 1998, § 579,
available at http://www .complex.hu/kzldat/t9800019.htm/
t9800019.htm (in Hungarian).
|Iceland||Allowed only to (1) other Nordic countries under the Nordic Arrest Warrant, subject to certain conditions; or (2) other contracting states party to the Council of Europe’s European Convention on Extradition (although this Convention does permit states to refuse extradition of their nationals). Nationals for Iceland in this context refers to nationals of Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden as well as Iceland.||Extradition of Criminals and Other Assistance in Criminal
Proceedings, Act No. 13, Apr. 17, 1984 (as last amended by
Act No. 88/2008), art. 2, http://eng.innanrikisraduneyti.is/
laws-and-regulations/nr/104; Gjermund Mathisen, Nordic
Cooperation and the European Arrest Warrant: Intra-
Nordic Extradition, the Nordic Arrest Warrant and
Beyond, 79 Nordic J. Int’l Law 10 (2010), available
at http://heinonline .org/HOL/Page?collection=journals&
contained in a letter from the Permanent Representative of
Iceland, handed to the Secretary General at the time of
deposit of the instrument of ratification, on 20 June 1984,”
List of Declarations Made with Respect to Treaty No. 024
[European Convention on Extradition]: Iceland,
Council of Europe, http://conventions .coe.int/Treaty/
CL=ENG&VL=1 (status as of June 19, 2013).
|India||X||Extradition Act, No. 34, 1962, http:// www.nia.gov.in/acts/
|Indonesia||Generally no, except in some circumstances in which it is considered more appropriate to prosecute at the scene of the crime.||Law No. 1/1979, on Extradition, art. 7, available at
http://www.refworld.org/ pdfid/48635aac2.pdf .
|Iran||X||Law of Extradition, May 4, 1969, art 8, http://rc.majlis.ir/fa/
law/show/95205 (in Persian), English translation available
on the General Directorate of International Affairs of the
Islamic Republic of Iran Judiciary website, at
|Iraq||X||Constitution, Oct. 15, 2005, art. 21, http://www.parliament.
w6576i75page&pa= showpage&pid=54 (in Arabic).
|Ireland||Generally not allowed, but numerous exceptions exist, in particular if there is an extradition treaty between Ireland and the requesting country.||Ireland’s Extradition Act, 1965, Irish Statute Book,
|Israel||Extradition of a person who at the time of committing the extraditable offense was an Israeli citizen and a resident allowed only if (1) the extradition request is for the purpose of adjudication in the requesting country; and
(2) the requesting country has agreed, in advance, to transport the offender to Israel for the purpose of serving any imprisonment sentence.
|Extradition Law, 5714-1954, § 1A, Sefer HaHukim
(Official Gazette) 5714, No. 163, p. 174 (1954), as
amended, up-to-date text is available at
http://www.nevo.co.il (by subscription).
|Italy||Extradition of citizens permitted only when expressly allowed under international treaties binding on Italy.||Constitution of the Italian Republic, 1948, art. 26(1),
costituzione.pdf (in Italian); Italian Penal Code art. 13,
http://www.altalex.com /index.php?idnot=1994 (in Italian);
EAW Decision, supra, 2002 O.J. (L 190) 1.
|Ivory Coast||X||Loi du 10 mars 1927 relative a l’extradition des étrangers
[Law of March 10, 1927, on Extradition of Foreigners]
art. 5, available at http:// ledroitcriminel.free.fr/la_
Adopted by Ivory Coast according to
NATLEX ILO, https://www.ilo.org/dyn/natlex /natlex _
SORTBY_COUNTRY (last visited July 2, 2013).
|Jamaica||The Minister may refuse to extradite a citizen unless the person is also a citizen of the requesting state.||Extradition Act 7 of 1991, 35 of 1995 (July 8, 1991), § 7(5),
available at http://www.oas.org/juridico/mla/en/jam/
|Japan||Denied except when a treaty of extradition provides otherwise.||Law of Extradition, Law No. 68 of 1953, last amended by
Act No. 37 of 2007, art. 2, available at
|Jordan||Allowed if provided for in duly approved international agreements.||Constitution, 1952, art. 21(2),
Extradition Law, 1927, http:// www.lob.gov.jo/ui/laws/
search_no.jsp?no=0&year=1927 (in Arabic).
|Kazakhstan||X||Constitution of the Republic of Kazakhstan, Aug. 30, 1995,
art. 11, § 1, http://www.akorda.kz/en/category /konstituciya .
|Kenya||Allowed if there is an agreement with the requesting country or the requesting country has/will have in place a reciprocal law; also allowed if the request comes from a Commonwealth country.||Extradition (Contiguous and Foreign Countries) Act §§ 2
& 16, 7 Laws of Kenya Cap. 76 (rev. ed. 2009),
Extradition (Commonwealth Countries) Act, §§ 2 & 6,
6 Laws of Kenya, Cap. 77 (rev. ed. 2009), available at
|Kiribati||The Minister of Foreign Affairs may refuse to extradite a citizen of Kiribati.||Extradition Act 2003, § 19(2)(b), available at
|Korea (Republic of)||The government has the discretion to extradite its own nationals.||Extradition Act, Act No. 4015, Aug. 5, 1988, last amended
by Act No. 10202, Mar. 31, 2010, art. 9, translation
available through the online database of the Korea
Legislative Research Institute, at http://elaw.klri.re.kr/eng
|Kosovo||Only allowed when required by international law and agreements.||Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo, Apr. 7, 2008,
art. 35, § 4, http://www .kuvendikosoves.org/?cid=2,100,48.
|Kuwait||X||There is no law on the subject. However, the State of Kuwait stated in its report on the implementation of the UN Convention Against Corruption that it does not extradite its own citizens.||U.N. Report No. CAC/COSP/IRG/I/2/ 1/Add.8
(Oct. 23, 2012), http://www .unodc.org/documents/treaties/
ExecutiveSummaries/V1256905a.pdf (in Arabic).
|Kyrgyzstan||X||Constitution of the Kyrgyz Republic, June 27, 2010, art.
51, § 1, available at http://www.wipo.int/wipolex/en/
|Latvia||Only allowed when required by international agreements ratified by the Saeima (legislature), so long as the extradition does not violate the basic human rights specified in the Constitution.||Constitution of the Republic of Latvia, Feb. 15, 1922, art. 98,
|Lebanon||X||Penal Code, 1943, arts. 20 & 32, available at
|Lesotho||X||Fugitive Offenders Act 38, 1967, §§ 3 & 6, XII The Laws
Lesotho (1967), available at https://www.unodc .org/
|Liberia||X||Criminal Procedure Law, §§ 8.1 & 8.2, I Liberian Code of
Laws Revised, tit. 2, ch. 8 (rev. ed. 1973), available at
|Libya||X||Code of Criminal Procedure, 1953, art. 493,
?itemid=54 (in Arabic).
|Lithuania||Allowed only as established by international treaty.||Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania, Oct. 25, 1995, art.
13, http:// www3.lrs.lt/home/Konstitucija/Constitution.htm.
|Malawi||X||Extradition Act of 1972, §§ 2, 4 & 6, II Laws of Malawi,
Cap. 8:03 (rev. ed. 2010), available at http://www. vertic
|Malaysia||The Minister of Home Affairs has the discretion to refuse the extradition of a citizen of Malaysia.||Extradition Act 1992 (Act 479), § 49, http://www.agc.gov.
|Mexico||Allowed only in exceptional cases, at the discretion of the government.||Law on International Extradition, Dec. 29, 1975, art. 14,
|Moldova||X||Constitution of the Republic of Moldova, July 29, 1994, art.
18, § 2, http://www.presedinte.md/const.php?page=8210&
lang=rus#8210 (in Russian).
|Mongolia||X||Constitution of Mongolia, Jan. 13, 1992, art. 15, available
at http://www .refworld.org/docid/3ae6b5a38.html.
|Montenegro||Only allowed in accordance with the international obligations of Montenegro.||Constitution of Montenegro, Oct. 19, 2007, art. 12, available
at http://www .refworld.org/docid/47e11b0c2.html.
|Morocco||X||Penal Code, 2002, art. 718, http://adala .justice.gov.ma/
20المسطرة%20الجنائية.pdf (in Arabic).
|Mozambique||X||Constitution art. 67(4), http://www .portaldogoverno.gov.
mz/Legisla/constituicao_republica/ (in Portuguese).
|Namibia||Allowed only if approved by the Minister of Justice.||Extradition Act No. 11, 1996, §§ 2 & 6, Government Gazette of the Republic of Namibia, No. 1358 (July 16, 1996), available at http://www .vertic.org/media/National%20Legislation/Namibia/NA_Extradition_Act_1996.pdf.|
|Nauru||X||Extradition of Fugitive Offenders Act 1973, available at
|Nepal||X||Extradition Act, 2045 (1988), available at
|Netherlands||Allowed only if, in the opinion of the Minister of Security and Justice, the requesting State provides a guarantee that the person claimed may be returned to the Netherlands to serve any unconditional, custodial sentence. The Netherlands’ participation in the Council of Europe’s European Convention on Extradition is subject to the same restriction. The Netherlands has also become a party to the EAW Decision, which allows in general for transfer of criminal offenders between Member States.||The Netherlands – National Procedures for Extradition, Council of Europe, http://www.coe.int/t/dghl/standardsetting/pc-oc/Country_information1_en _files/NL%20Extradition.pdf (last visited June 19, 2013); Uitleveringswet (Mar. 9, 1967, as amended effective July 1, 2013), art. 4, §§ 1 & 2, http:// wetten.overheid.nl/BWBR0002559/geldigheidsdatum_14-06-2013; EAW Decision, supra, 2002 O.J. (L 190) 1; “Declaration Contained in a Note Verbale from the Permanent Representation of the Netherlands, Dated 14 October 1987, Registered at the Secretariat General on 15 October 1987 –and Completed by a Note Verbale from the Permanent Representation of the Netherlands, Dated 12 December 1994, Registered at the Secretariat General on 15 December 1994”, List of Declarations Made with Respect to Treaty No. 024 [European Convention on Extradition]: Netherlands, Council of Europe, http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/ListeDeclarations.asp?NT=024&CM=8&DF=&CL=ENG&VL=1 (status as of June 19, 2013).|
|New Zealand||If a treaty or other arrangements with regard to a particular country provides that no New Zealand citizen is to be surrendered, then the Minister must refuse extradition. Even if the treaty or other arrangements do not preclude surrender, the Minister may determine not to extradite a New Zealand citizen if satisfied that it would not be in the interests of justice to do so.||Extradition Act 1999, s 30(2)(c) & (3)(c),
|Nicaragua||X||Nicaraguan Constitution art. 43, repromulgated with
amendments, La Gaceta (Sept. 16, 2010),
http://www. asamblea.gob.ni/wp-content/uploads /2012/06/
Constitucion.pdf (in Spanish).
|Niger||X||Loi du 10 mars 1927, relative a l’extradition des étrangers
[Law of Mar. 10, 1927, on Extradition of Foreigners] art. 5,
available at http://www.unodc .org/documents/terrorism/
|Nigeria||X||Extradition Act, 1967, §§ 3 & 21, 6 Laws of the Federation
of Nigeria, Cap. E25 (rev. ed. 2006), available at
http://www.vertic. org/media/National %20Legislation/
|Niue||All Niueans are New Zealand citizens. Other than where the requesting country is New Zealand, an extradition request may be refused if “the person is a New Zealand citizen and there is no treaty in force between Niue and the extradition country which provides for the extradition of New Zealand citizens; or there is no treaty between New Zealand and the extradition countries which provides for the extradition of New Zealand citizens from Niue.”||Extradition Act 2007, § 11(1)(iv), available at
|Norway||Allowed to (1) other Nordic countries, subject to certain conditions under the Nordic Arrest Warrant system; and (2) contracting states parties to the Council of Europe’s European Convention on Extradition, which, however, gives the states parties the right but not the obligation to refuse extradition of their nationals. “Nationals” for Norway in this context refers to nationals of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Sweden, as well as Norway.||LOV 1975-06-13 nr 39: Lov om utlevering av lovbrytere m.v. [utleveringsloven] [Act Relating to Extradition of Offenders etc. (Extradition Act)] (as last amended June 22, 2012, in force Jan. 1, 2013), § 2, http://www.lovdata.no/all/hl-19750613-039.html; Lov om utlevering for å få iverksatt vedtak om frihetsinngrep truffet av myndighet i annet nordisk land [Law on Extradition to Implement a Decision Taken on Infringement of Liberty of the Authority in Another Nordic Country] (June 5, 1970, as last amended effective Oct. 16, 2012), Law No. 35, http://www .lovdata.no/all/nl-19700605-035.html; “Declaration contained in a letter from the Permanent Representative of Iceland, handed to the Secretary General at the time of deposit of the instrument of ratification, on 20 June 1984,” List of Declarations Made with Respect to Treaty No. 024 [European Convention on Extradition]: Norway, Council of Europe, http://conventions .coe.int/Treaty/Commun/ListeDeclarations.asp?NT=024&CM=8&DF=&CL=ENG&VL=1 (status as of June 19, 2013); see also Gjermund Mathisen, Nordic Cooperation and the European Arrest Warrant: Intra-Nordic Extradition, the Nordic Arrest Warrant and Beyond, 79 Nordic J. Int’l Law 10 (2010), available at http://heinonline.org/HOL /Page?collection=journals&handle=hein.journals/nordic79&page=1.|
|Oman||X||Law 4-2000, Feb. 1, 2000, art. 3, http:// mola.gov.om/legals
/tasleem_al_mujremeen/leg.pdf (in Arabic).
|Pakistan||X||Extradition Act, 1972, available at http://www.oecd.org/
|Panama||X||Code of Criminal Procedure (as amended May 27, 2013),
art. 518 (I), http://www.asamblea.gob.pa/APPS/LEGISPAN/
|Papua New Guinea||The Minister for Justice may refuse to extradite a citizen of Papua New Guinea.||Extradition Act 2005, § 35(2)(d), http:// www.paclii.org/pg/
|Paraguay||X||Code of Criminal Procedure, 1998, art. 149,
Derecho_Penal_TomoIII.pdf (in Spanish).
|Peru||X||1993 Political Constitution art. 37, http://spij.minjus.gob.pe/CLP/contenidos.dll?f=templates&fn=default-constitucion.htm&vid=Ciclope:CLPdemo; Code of Criminal Procedure 2004, arts. 516 & 517, http://spij.minjus.gob .pe/CLP/contenidos.dll?f=templates&fn=default-nuevocodprocpenal.htm&vid =Ciclope:CLPdemo (both in Spanish).|
|Poland||Only allowed if a request for extradition was made by a foreign state or an international judicial body based on an international treaty ratified by Poland or based on a statute implementing a legal instrument enacted by an international organization of which Poland is a member. Other conditions, such as that the crime be committed outside of Poland but would be prosecuted if committed in Poland, apply except for cases of genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes, or crimes of aggression, as covered by international law.||Constitution of the Republic of Poland, Apr. 2, 1997, art.
55, http://www .sejm.gov.pl/prawo/konst/angielski/
|Portugal||X||Constitution art. 33(1), http://www .parlamento.pt/
|Qatar||X||Law 23-2004 on Criminal Procedure art. 409,
|Romania||Romanian citizens can be extradited based on international agreements to which Romania is a party, according to the law and on a mutual basis.
Under the Declaration to the European Convention on Extradition, Romanian citizens may not be extradited. Exceptions may be made in accordance with reciprocal agreements if (a) any resulting sentence will be served in Romania; (b) the Romanian citizen has his residence in the requesting State at the date of the formulation of the request for extradition; (c) the Romanian citizen has also the citizenship of the requesting State; and (d) the Romanian citizen allegedly committed the crime in the territory or against a citizen of a Member State of the European Union, if the requesting country is an EU Member.
Any person for whom asylum was granted in Romania may not be extradited.
|Constitution of Romania, Nov. 21, 1991, art. 19, § 2, http://www.cdep.ro /pls/dic/site.page?den=act2_2&par1=2#t2c1s0a19; “Declaration contained in a Note verbale from the Permanent Representation of Romania, dated 7 July 2006, registered at the Secretariat General on July 17, 2006, List of Declarations Made with Respect to Treaty No. 024 [European Convention on Extradition]: Romania, http://con ventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/ListeDeclarations.asp?NT=024&CM=1&CL=ENG&VL=1 (status as of June 18, 2013).|
|Russia||X||Constitution of the Russian Federation art. 61,
|Saint Christopher and Nevis||X||Extradition Act, Laws of Saint Christopher and Nevis,
Ch. 4:08 (Rev. Dec. 2002), incorporating the United
Kingdom Extradition Acts, 1870, as amended in 1873,
|Saint Lucia||X||St. Lucia: Extradition Act No. 12 (1986), available at
|Samoa||The Minister of Justice may refuse to extradite a citizen of Samoa.||Relevant Law: Extradition Act 1974, § 11(6),
|São Tomé e Príncipe||X||Constitution art. 41(1), http://www2 .camara.gov.br/
democratica-de-s.tome-e (in Portuguese).
|Saudi Arabia||X||Constitution, Mar. 1, 1992, art. 42,
|Serbia||X||While the extradition of citizens is prohibited by legislation it is no longer a constitutional principle.||Law on Mutual Assistance in Criminal Matters, Official
Gazette of the Republic of Serbia, No. 20/09, arts. 1, 16,
matter.php; UN General Assembly, International Law
Commission, The Obligation to Extradite or Prosecute
(aut dedere aut judicare): Comments and Information
Received from Governments, U.N. Doc.A/CN.4/579/
Add.2 (June 5, 2007), http://untreaty.un.org/ilc/
|Seychelles||X||Extradition Act 19, 1991, §§ 5 & 6, V Laws of Seychelles,
Cap. 78 (rev. ed. 1991), available at http://www.seylii .org/
|Sierra Leone||Allowed but only if either (1) the Attorney-General approves, or (2) the citizen fugitive is sought for extradition by a Commonwealth country and is also a citizen of that country.||Extradition Act, 1974, § 20, CV Supplement to the Sierra
Leone Gazette, No. 87 (Nov. 21, 1974), available at
|Singapore||No clear prohibition in the law.||Extradition Act, ch. 103, as amended through Sept. 29, 2007,
http://statutes .agc.gov.sg (search by chapter number).
|Slovakia||X||Constitution of the Slovac Republic, Sept. 1, 1992, art. 23.4,
|Slovenia||Allowed only under a treaty by which Slovenia has transferred the exercise of part of its sovereign rights to an international organization.||Constitution of the Republic of Slovenia, Dec. 23, 1991,
art. 47, available at http://www.pf.uni-mb.si /datoteke/
|Solomon Islands||The relevant Minister may refuse to extradite a citizen of the Solomon Islands.||Extradition Act 2010, § 19(2)(b), available at
|South Africa||X||Extradition Act 67, 1962, § 3, 8 Statutes of the
Republic of South Africa (rev. ed. 2012),
|South Sudan||No relevant law could be located.|
|Sri Lanka||X||Extradition Law, No. 8, 1977, available at
39370394.pdf: Extradition Amendment Act, No. 48, 1999,
available at http://www.oecd .org/site/adboecdanti-
|Spain||Citizens are handed over to other Member States of the European Union in response to an EAW. In such cases, surrender may be permitted under the condition that the Spanish national must return to Spain for the execution of the punishment or sanction, in case of conviction in the requesting country.||
Law on Passive Extradition, 1985, art. 3,
|Sudan||Permitted if a magistrate judge finds proof that the Sudanese citizen is guilty.||Law on Extradition, 1957, art. 9(2) & 10(1),
law.php?law_id=46 (in Arabic).
|Swaziland||X||Fugitive Offenders (Commonwealth) Act No. 9, 1969, §§ 3 & 6, VII Supplement to the Swaziland Government Gazette, No. 352 (May 16, 1969).|
|Sweden||Allowed to states in the Nordic Region or the European Union, under Swedish law or an EAW. Surrender of Swedish nationals permitted under Swedish law, for example, predicated on the law of the issuing state prescribing a custodial penalty for the offense in question. Under the EAW Decision, surrender may only be granted, for example, for acts corresponding to an offense under Swedish law for which a custodial sentence of one year or more is prescribed by the issuing state’s law.||Lag (1957:668) om utlämning för brot [Act (1957:668) on Extradition] (Dec. 6, 1957, as last amended by SFS 2012:573), § 2, http://220.127.116.11/cgi-bin/thw?%24%7BHTML%7D=sfst_lst&%24%7BOOHTML%7D=sfst_dok&%24%7BSNHTML%7D=sfst_err&%24%7BBASE%7D=SFST&%24%7BTRIPSHOW%7D=format%3DTHW&BET=1957%3A668%24; Lag (2011:1165) om överlämnande från Sverige enligt en nordisk arresteringsorder [Act (2011:1165) on Surrender from Sweden According to a Nordic Arrest Warrant] (Nov. 24, 2011), http://www.riksdagen .se/sv/Dokument-Lagar/Lagar/Svensk forfattningssamling/Lag-20111165-om-overlamnand_sfs-2011-1165/; Lag (2003:1156) om överlämnande från Sverige enligt en europeisk arresteringsorder [Act on Surrender from Sweden According to the European Arrest Warrant] (Dec. 18, 2003, in force Jan. 1, 2004; as last amended by SFS 2013:128, Mar. 14, 2013), available at http://www.notisum .se/rnp/sls/lag/20031156.HTM.|
|Switzerland||X||Bundesgesetz über internationale Rechtshilfe in Strafsachen
(Federal Act on International Legal Assistance in Criminal
Matters), Mar. 20, 1981, as amended, Systematische
Sammlung des Bundesrechts 351.1, art. 7,
|Syria||X||Constitution, 2012, art. 38(2), http:// parliament.sy/forms/
new_laws/viewNew_laws.php?law_id=37 (in Arabic).
|Taiwan||X||Law of Extradition, July 4, 1980, art. 4,
|Tajikistan||X||Constitution of Tajikistan, Nov. 6, 1994, art. 16,
|Tanzania||X||Extradition Act, 1965, §§ 2, 4 & 11, IX Laws of Tanzania,
Cap. 368 (rev. ed. 2002), Law Reform Commission of
Tanzania website at http://www.lrct. go.tz/?wpfb_dl=152.
|Thailand||X||Extradition Act, B.E. 2551 (2008), available at
|Timor Leste||X||Constitution, art. 35(4), http://timor-leste.gov.tl/?cat=
|Togo||X||Extradition Treaty of the Economic Community of West
African States, art. 10, Aug. 1, 1994, http://www.icpat.org /
|Tonga||X||Extradition Act, Cap. 22, available at http://www.paclii.org/
|Trinidad and Tobago||Extradition (Commonwealth and Foreign Territories)
Act, ch. 12:04, Laws Of Trinidad And Tobago, Act 36 of
1985, as amended, available at http://www.oas.org/juridico/
|Tunisia||X||Criminal Procedure Code, 1968, art. 310, available at
cpp1235.htm (in French).
|Turkey||Not allowed except under obligations due to being a party to the International Criminal Court.||Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Anayasasi [Constitution of the Republic
of Turkey], Law No. 2709 (Nov. 7, 1982, as last amended by
Law No. 6214, Mar. 29, 2011), art. 38, ¶ 10,
(in Turkish), and http://www.byegm .gov.tr/content.aspx?s
=tcotrot (in English); Türk Ceza Kanunu (Sept. 26, 2004, as
last amended by Law No. 6462, May 3, 2013),
Code, Law No. 5237 (Sept. 26, 2004), art. 18 ¶ 2, available
at http://legislationline.org/documents /action/popup/id/
|Turkmenistan||X||Constitution of Turkmenistan, May 18, 1992, art. 7,
at http://www .wipo.int/wipolex/en/ details.jsp?id=11374.
|Tuvalu||The Prime Minister may refuse to extradite a citizen of Tuvalu.||Extradition Act 2004, § 19(2)(b), available at
|Uganda||X||Extradition Act, 1964, § 1, 6 Laws of Uganda, Cap. 117
(rev. ed. 2000), available at http://www.ulii.org/ug/
|Ukraine||X||Constitution of Ukraine, June 28, 1996, art. 25,
|United Arab Emirates||X||Constitution, Dec 2, 1971, art. 38, http://www.uaecabinet.ae/
|United Kingdom||X||Extradition Act 2003, c. 41, http://www .legislation.gov.uk/
|Uruguay||X||Criminal Code, arts. 13, 14, http://www .parlamento.gub.uy/
Codigos/CodigoPenal/l1t1.htm; Code of Criminal Procedure
Law 15032/ 1980, art. 32 http://www.parlamento.gub.uy/
(both in Spanish).
|Uzbekistan||X||Code of Criminal Procedure of the Republic of Uzbekistan,
Sept. 22, 1994, art. 603, http://www.parliament.gov.uz /
upload/files/laws/UPKODEKS.pdf (in Russian).
|Vanuatu||The Attorney-General may refuse to extradite a citizen of Vanuatu.||Extradition Act 2002, § 17(2)(d), available at
|Venezuela||X||Political Constitution, 2000, art. 29, http://www.tsj.gov.ve/
legislacion/constitucion1999.htm (in Spanish).
|Vietnam||X||Criminal Procedure Code, No. 19/2003/QH11 of
Nov. 26, 2003, arts 343 & 344, http://vbqppl.moj.gov.vn /
|Yemen||X||Constitution of the Republic of Yemen, 2001, art. 45,
available at http://www .refworld.org/topic,50ffbce5220,
|Zambia||Allowed only as specifically provided for in extradition provisions.||Extradition Act of 1968, § 34, 7 Laws of Zambia, Cap. 94
(rev. ed. 1995), available at http://www.refworld.org
|Zimbabwe||Allowed if the request for extradition is accompanied by “such evidence as would establish a prima facie case in a court of law in Zimbabwe that the person concerned has committed or has been convicted of the offence concerned in the foreign country.”||Extradition Act of 1982, §§ 3, 4 & 6, 1 Statute Law of
Zimbabwe, Cap. 9:08 (rev. ed. 1996), available at
Last Updated: 07/21/2016