Law Library Stacks

The Law Library of Congress produces reports primarily for members of Congress.  The legal research reports listed below by topic provide commentary and recommended resources on issues and events. These reports are provided for reference purposes only and do not constitute legal advice. The information provided reflects research undertaken as of the date of writing, which has not been updated unless specifically noted.

The most recent reports are highlighted on our Current Legal Topics page. Historical reports can be found in the “Publications of the Law Library of Congress” collection.

Adoption, Custody, and Parentage

Adoption Law May 2013 Turkey; United States PDF, 161KB
Hague Convention on International Child Abduction June 2004 51 jurisdictions; European Union PDF, 1.77MB
Provisions on Child Abduction in Non-Hague Countries May 2015 38 countries PDF, 259KB

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Aeronautics and Space

Airport Noise Regulations Feb. 2020 European Union; France; Germany; Italy; Portugal; Spain; Sweden; United Kingdom PDF, 238KB
Privatization of Air Traffic Control May 2015 Germany PDF, 177KB
Regulation of Drones April 2016 13 Countries; European Union PDF, 1.27MB

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Armed Forces

Article 9 of the Constitution Feb. 2006 Japan PDF, 418KB
Military Draft Law and Enforcement Nov. 2019 Israel PDF, 644KB
Family and Medical Leave Benefits Provided by the Military June 2014 Denmark; Israel; Norway; Sweden PDF, 205KB
Interpretations of Article 9 of the Constitution Sept. 2015 Japan PDF, 954KB

Military Court Decision on Killing Neutralized Palestinian Assailant

Jan. 2017


PDF, 368KB

Military Justice July 2013 Australia; Canada; France; Germany; Israel; United Kingdom PDF, 1.08MB
Sentencing of Soldier Convicted of Killing Neutralized Palestinian Assailant Mar. 2017 Israel PDF, 257KB
Supreme Court Decision Invalidating the Law on Haredi Military Draft Postponement Mar. 2012 Israel PDF, 130KB
Veteran’s Benefits for Non-Citizens May 2009 France; Israel PDF, 192KB
Veterans’ Benefits for Noncitizens Oct. 2016 France; Israel PDF, 202KB

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Banking and Finance

History of Corruption and the Stanford Case Jan. 2011 Antigua and Barbuda PDF, 104KB
New Law on Banking and Financial Regulation Feb. 2010 France PDF, 106KB
Regulation of Bitcoin in Selected Jurisdictions Jan. 2014; updated June 2014 40 countries; European Union PDF, 129KB
Regulation of Cryptocurrency June 2018 14 jurisdictions PDF, 512KB
Regulation of Cryptocurrency Around the World June 2018 130 countries; Regional Organizations PDF, 1.40MB
Regulatory Approaches to Cryptoassets Apr. 2019 45 countries; European Union PDF, 1.49MB
Taxation of Cryptocurrency Block Rewards Jan. 2021 31 countries PDF, 1.67MB

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Government Responses to Disinformation Sept. 2019 16 jurisdictions PDF, 984KB
Initiatives to Counter Fake News Apr. 2019 11 countries PDF, 869KB
Laws Protecting Journalists from Online Harassment Sept. 2019 12 countries; International law PDF, 1MB

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Constitutional Issues

2013 Government Composition and Coalition Agreements Apr. 2013 Israel PDF, 375KB
Civic Space Legal Framework Oct. 2020 Brazil, Finland, Morocco, Tunisia PDF, 765KB
The Constitution n/a United States n/a
Constitutional Crisis: Applicable Authorities Nov. 2009 Honduras PDF, 312KB
Constitutional Law and the Political Rights of Religious Communities Apr. 2012 Lebanon PDF, 258KB
Constitutional Law Issues Aug. 2009 Honduras PDF, 135KB
Constitutional Provisions on National and Religious Identity Dec. 2014 37 countries PDF, 149KB
Crisis in the Judiciary Apr. 2007 Pakistan n/a

Freedom of Expression during COVID-19

Sept. 2020 20 countries PDF, 1.16MB
Habeas Corpus Rights  Mar. 2009 13 countries PDF, 213KB
The Hariri Assassination June 2007 Lebanon PDF, 102KB
Immunity from Prosecutions for Former Presidents Oct. 2017 32 countries PDF, 212KB
The Impact of Foreign Law on Domestic Judgments Mar. 2010 13 countries PDF, 608KB
Impeachment: A Bibliography of Federal Law Sources in the Law Library of Congress Dec. 2019 United States PDF, 667KB
Interstate Compacts in the United States June 2018 United States PDF, 180KB
Israel: Scope and Duration of Amendments Regulating the Tenure and Operation of a Rotating Government May 2020 Israel PDF, 125KB
Laws Lifting Sovereign Immunity June 2016 Cuba, Iran, Libya, Russia, Sudan, Syria PDF, 306KB
Legal Framework for Arbitration Aug. 2014 Egypt PDF, 225KB
Legal History and Traditions June 2004 Iraq PDF, 299KB
Legal Implications of Castro's Resignation Feb. 2008 Cuba PDF, 222KB

Legal Mechanisms for Removing a Head of State for Incapacity

Oct. 2020 17 jurisdictions PDF, 970KB
Limits on Freedom of Expression June 2019 13 countries PDF, 749KB
Musharraf’s Resignation Oct. 2008 Pakistan PDF, 29KB
Parliamentary Procedures Requiring a Supermajority Apr. 2017 10 countries PDF, 160KB
The Parot Doctrine and the European Court of Human Rights Mar. 2014 Spain; Council of Europe see report
Proclamation of Emergency Nov. 2007 Pakistan n/a
Right to Peaceful Assembly Oct. 2014 6 countries; United States; European Court of Human Rights PDF, 229KB
Rules of Judicial Ethics: A Comparative Study Sept. 2014 Mali PDF, 191KB
Saddam Hussein Trial July 2007 Iraq n/a
Sentencing Guidelines Apr. 2014 Australia; England and Wales; India; South Africa; Uganda PDF, 370KB
Supreme Court Nominations n/a United States n/a

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Crime and Law Enforcement

Bribery Act 2010 - Anti-Corruption Legislation with Significant Jurisdictional Reach Mar. 2011 United Kingdom PDF, 248KB
Decriminalization of Domestic Violence June 2017 Russia PDF, 128KB
Decriminalization of Narcotics July 2016 16 countries PDF, 858KB
Former President Hosni Mubarak Trials June 2011; updated June 2014 Egypt n/a
INTERPOL: Red Notices July 2010 INTERPOL PDF, 261KB
Japan: 2016 Criminal Justice System Reform Nov. 2016 Japan PDF, 180KB
Legal Status of Khat May 2015 Djibouti; Ethiopia; Jordan; Kenya; Somalia; Turkey; Yemen PDF, 165KB
Miranda Warning Equivalents Abroad May 2016 108 jurisdictions PDF, 790KB
Mohammed Morsi Trial Apr. 2014 Egypt PDF, 133KB
Plea Bargaining Mar. 2020 Georgia; Indonesia; Malaysia; Nigeria; Russia; Singapore PDF, 558KB
Police Weapons Sept. 2014 18 countries; Council of Europe PDF, 1021KB
Powers of the Mexican Federal Police with Foreign Country Comparisons Apr. 2019 Mexico; 13 countries PDF, 278KB
Sexual Violence Against Women Oct. 2016 Egypt PDF, 472KB
Sports Betting and Integrity Agreements July 2018 Australia; Great Britain PDF, 179KB
Training Related to Combating Human Trafficking Feb. 2016 18 countries PDF, 2.29MB

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Education, Family, and Children's Rights

Child Protection Law and Policy May 2019 16 countries PDF, 2.25MB
Children's Rights Aug. 2007 16 countries PDF, 1.58MB
Civic Education Models June 2020 22 countries PDF, 2.48MB
Constitutional Right to an Education May 2016 20 countries PDF, 633KB
The Education of Non-Native Language Speaking Children Apr. 2009 European Union; France; Israel; Japan; United Kingdom PDF, 264KB
Higher Education Reforms and University Asylum Nov. 2019 Greece PDF, 243KB
Laws on Children Residing with Parents in Prison July 2014 97 countries; United Nations; Council of Europe; European Union PDF, 767KB

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Elections and Campaign Finance

Campaign Finance May 2009 Australia; France; Germany; Israel; United Kingdom PDF, 363KB
Citizens United v. FEC and the Future of Federal Campaign Finance Reform n/a United States n/a
Election Laws Apr. 2011 Nigeria PDF, 268KB
General Election May 2010 United Kingdom n/a
General Elections Nov. 2011 New Zealand n/a
Lobbying Disclosure Laws Mar. 2017 France; Germany; United Kingdom PDF, 163KB
Parliamentary Elections Nov. 2007 Russia PDF, 155KB
Presidential Election and the Conflicting Constitutional Interpretations Oct. 2007 Lebanon n/a
Regulation of Campaign Finance and Free Advertising Mar. 2016 Austria, Canada, Finland, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, United Kingdom PDF, 833KB
Regulation of Foreign Involvement in Elections Aug. 2019 13 countries PDF, 696KB

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Emergency and Disaster Relief

Continuity of Legislative Activities during Emergency Situations Mar. 2020 36 jurisdictions; United States PDF, 1.29MB
Federal, State, and Local Government Responses to COVID-19 Nov. 2020 United States PDF, 264KB
Legal Responses to the Great East Japan Earthquake of 2011 Sept. 2013 Japan PDF, 1.92MB

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Extradition of Citizens July 2013 Brazil and 157 Jurisdictions PDF, 397KB

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Government Powers and Litigation

Government Services Feedback Practices Oct. 2017 17 countries PDF, 436KB

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Government Spending

Bond Requirements in a Procurement Protest Procedure June 2014 21 countries PDF, 362KB
Regulation of Foreign Aid Mar. 2012 18 countries; European Union PDF, 2.18MB
Government Procurement Law and Policy Mar. 2010 Brazil; Canada; China; India; Japan; Russia; European Union PDF, 375KB
National Funding of Road Infrastructure Mar. 2014 14 countries PDF, 640KB
Stimulus Plans: Recent Developments Mar. 2009 17 countries; European Union n/a
Switzerland: Implementation of Article 126 of the Swiss Constitution – The “Debt Brake” June 2016 Switzerland PDF, 156KB
Welfare Reform Act 2012 May 2012 Great Britain PDF, 128KB

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Gun Control and Firearm Possession

Firearms-Control Legislation and Policy Feb. 2013 18 countries; European Union PDF, 1.54MB

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Healthcare, Safety, and Bioethics

Abortion Legislation in Europe Jan. 2015 22 countries PDF, 399KB
Approval of Medical Devices Sept. 2014 15 countries; European Union PDF, 2.29MB
Bioethics Legislation Oct. 2012 10 countries PDF, 750KB
Child Restraint and Seatbelt Regulations Apr. 2014 26 countries PDF, 350KB
Electronic Cigarettes July 2015 Germany PDF, 289KB
Health Standards in Refugee Camps Dec. 2019 European Union PDF, 24KB
Legal Responses to Health Emergencies Feb. 2015 25 countries; European Union; World Health Organization PDF, 1.32MB
Medical Malpractice Liability June 2009 Canada; England and Wales; Germany; India PDF, 210KB
Regulating Electronic Means to Fight the Spread of COVID-19 June 2020 22 countries; European Union PDF, 2.78MB
Regulation and Funding of Alternative Maternity Care Providers May 2019 10 countries PDF, 592KB
Regulation of Wild Animal Wet Markets Sept. 2020 28 countries PDF, 1.43MB
Reproduction and Abortion: Law and Policy Feb. 2012 Israel PDF, 265KB
Sex Selection & Abortion June 2009 Australia; Canada; India; New Zealand PDF, 142KB
State Legislation on Comprehensive Health Care Coverage July 2009 United States n/a
Supply Chain Regulation of Pharmaceutical Samples Sept. 2019 Japan; Turkey; European Union PDF, 376KB

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Immigration, Nationality, and Citizenship

Birthright Citizenship Around the World Nov. 2018 94 countries PDF, 837KB
Citizenship Based on Birth in Country May 2012 France; Germany; Greece; Italy; Portugal; Spain; United Kingdom PDF, 418KB
Citizenship Pathways and Border Protection Mar. 2013 13 countries; Schengen area PDF, 1.01MB
Citizenship Through International Adoption Feb. 2021 18 countries PDF, 2MB
'Climate Change Refugee’ Case Overview July 2015 New Zealand PDF, 353KB
Criminalization of Illegal Entry Around the World Aug. 2019 162 countries PDF, 400KB
Family Reunification Laws July 2014 71 countries; United States; European Union PDF, 474KB
Fees Charged for Asylum Applications by States Parties to the 1951 Refugee Convention Dec. 2017 147 countries PDF, 338KB
Fourteenth Amendment and Citizenship n/a United States n/a

Germany: The Development of Migration and Citizenship Law in Postwar Germany

Mar. 2017 Germany PDF, 215KB
Guest Worker Programs Feb. 2013 14 countries; European Union; International Labour Organization PDF, 785KB
Investor Visas Aug. 2013 13 countries PDF, 773KB
Laws Concerning Children of Undocumented Migrants Sept. 2017 19 countries PDF, 1.05MB
Legal Status of Refugees Dec. 2013 Egypt; Jordan; Lebanon; Iraq PDF, 106KB
Major Overhaul of Immigration Policies in 2013 Apr. 2013 Netherlands PDF, 126KB
Points-Based and Family Immigration Jan. 2020 Australia; Austria; Canada; Japan; South Korea; New Zealand; United Kingdom PDF, 2.68MB
Points-Based Immigration Systems Mar. 2013 Australia; Canada; United Kingdom PDF, 566KB
Provisions on Child Asylum Seekers May 2018 Australia; Canada; European Union; France; Germany; Italy; Sweden; United Kingdom PDF, 198KB
Recognition of Foreign Passports Apr. 2021 20 jurisdictions; United States; International law PDF, 2.1MB
Refugee Law and Policy Mar. 2016 22 countries; European Union PDF, 2.11MB
The Revocation of Huguenot Rights to French Citizenship Oct. 2019 France PDF, 223KB
Right to Counsel for Detained Migrants May 2017 Australia; Canada; France; Germany; Israel; Sweden; United Kingdom PDF, 152KB

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Import-Export, Trade, Contracts, and Investment


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Indigenous and Cultural Property

Destruction of Cultural Property Apr. 2009 Cyprus PDF, 445KB
Mâori Culture and Intellectual Property Law Dec. 2010 New Zealand PDF, 422KB
Preservation of Historical Cemeteries Apr. 2014 18 countries; United States PDF, 291KB
Protection of Indigenous Heritage Mar. 2019 11 countries PDF, 805KB
Repatriation of Historic Human Remains July 2009 Australia; New Zealand; United Kingdom PDF, 295KB

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Insurance, Social Security, and Retirement


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Intellectual Property

Digital Legal Depost July 2018 15 countries PDF, 2.02MB
Mandatory Deposit Laws Dec. 2017 131 countries PDF, 461KB
Patent Term Extensions and Adjustments Mar. 2016 8 countries; European Union PDF, 279KB
Protection of Trade Secrets Aug. 2013 Brazil; China; India; Russia; South Africa PDF, 475KB

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Labor Law


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Law Library of Congress


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Lawyers, Judiciary, and Legal Training


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Legal History, Traditions, and System

Access to the Justice System and to Legal Aid Dec. 2017 Egypt PDF, 334KB
Features of Parliamentary Websites July 2017 50 countries PDF, 842KB

PDF, with maps, 8.75MB
National Parliaments Jan. 2016; Feb. 2017; Feb. 2018 19 countries; European Parliament; Gulf Cooperation Council countries see report
Parliamentary Oversight of the Executive Branch Aug. 2017 Canada; Germany; Italy; Japan; Poland; Sweden; United Kingdom; and the United States. PDF, 445KB
Service of Process Sept. 2020 17 countries; European Union PDF, 1.98MB
Virtual Civil Trials Apr. 2020 25 jurisdictions PDF, 1.05MB

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Marriage, Divorce, and Estates

Extrajudicial Sanctions Against Husbands Noncompliant with Rabbinical Divorce Rulings May 2017 Israel PDF, 420KB
Inheritance Laws in the 19th and 20th Centuries Mar. 2015 France; Germany; United States; England and Wales see report
Spousal Agreements for Couples Not Belonging to Any Religion—A Civil Marriage Option? Sept. 2015


PDF, 407KB

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Minority and Human Rights

Constitutional Provisions on Women's Equality  July 2011 111 countries PDF, 171KB
Laws on Homosexuality in African Nations Feb. 2014 49 countries PDF, 265KB
Legal Provisions on Gender Equality Feb. 2020 Israel; Iran; 16 Arab countries PDF, 394KB
Status of Minorities Oct. 2012 Greece PDF, 668KB

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Motor Vehicles and Road Infrastructure


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Plants, Animals, and the Environment

Crude Oil Royalty Rates Jan. 2015 22 countries PDF, 277KB

Laws on Leg-Hold Animal Traps Around the World


Animal Trap Laws: Supplemental Report (included above)

Aug. 2016


Oct. 2016

108 Jurisdictions


22 Jurisdictions

PDF, 864KB

PDF, 245KB

Legislation on Use of Water in Agriculture Oct. 2010 19 countries PDF, 734KB
Measures to Implement MARPOL Convention Annex VI, Chapter 4 June 2014 United Kingdom PDF, 103KB
Oil Spill Liability and Regulatory Regime June 2010 Australia; Brazil; Canada; Norway; United Kingdom PDF, 343KB
Plant Protection: Edelweiss Oct. 2012 Austria; France; Germany; India; Slovenia; Switzerland PDF, 248KB
Protection of Environmental Defenders in Latin America Nov. 2019 Brazil; Chile; Colombia; Guatemala; Honduras; Nicaragua; Venezuela PDF, 344KB
Regulation of Air Pollution June 2018 10 countries; European Union PDF, 1.38MB
Regulations Concerning the Private Possession of Big Cats June 2013 21 countries; European Union PDF, 1.08MB
Restrictions on Genetically Modified Organisms Mar. 2014 21 countries; United States; European Union; International Protocols PDF, 1.28MB
Slaughter of Domestic Animals May 2014 Sweden PDF, 92KB
Sustainability Criteria for Bio-fuels Jan. 2008 Australia; France; Germany; Switzerland PDF, 211KB
Wildlife Trafficking and Poaching Jan. 2013 Botswana; Central African Republic; Kenya; Mozambique; South Africa; Tanzania PDF, 384KB

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Privacy Rights and Data Protection

Biometric Data Retention for Passport Applicants and Holders Mar. 2014 14 countries; United States PDF, 177KB
Children's Online Privacy and Data Protection April 2021 9 countries; European Union PDF, 887KB
Collection of Personal Data of Hotel Guests Feb. 2019 European Union PDF, 134KB
ECJ Invalidates Data Retention Directive June 2014 European Union PDF, 212KB
Foreign Intelligence Gathering Laws Dec. 2014 France; Netherlands; Portugal; Romania; Sweden; European Union PDF, 354KB
Foreign Intelligence Gathering Laws June 2016 Belgium, France, Germany, Portugal, Romania, Netherlands, Sweden, United Kingdom, European Union PDF, 887KB
Government Access to Encrypted Communications May 2016

Australia, Belgium
Brazil, Canada
European Union, France, Germany, Israel, Japan, South Africa, Sweden, Taiwan, United Kingdom

PDF, 757KB
Laws on Erasure of Online Information November 2017

Canada, France, European Union, Germany, Israel, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, Portugal, Russia, Spain, United Kingdom

PDF, 839KB

Online Privacy Law


-European Union Update


-Update 2017

June 2012


May 2014


December 2017

Australia, Canada, European Union, France, Germany, Israel, Italy, Japan, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, United Kingdom

PDF, 2.47MB

PDF, 439KB


PDF, 872KB

Regulation of COVID-19 Digital Contact Tracing

Dec. 2020 Israel PDF, 226KB

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Property and Land Rights

Law for the Regulation of Settlement in Judea and Samaria, 5777-2017 Feb. 2017 Israel

PDF, 184KB

Legal Aspects of Ceding Israeli Territory Oct. 2018 Israel

PDF, 145KB

Real Property Law Oct. 2014; updated Mar. 2015 China PDF, 111KB

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Religion and the Law

Blasphemy and Related Laws Jan. 2017 77 countries PDF, 1.14MB
Constitutional Law and the Political Rights of Religious Communities Dec. 2010 Lebanon n/a
Criminal and Ethical Aspects of Municipal Rabbis' Letter Concerning the Sale or Rental of Property in Israel to Non-Jews Dec. 2010 Israel PDF, 133KB
Highlights Of Parliamentary Report On The Wearing Of The Full Veil (Burqa) Feb. 2010 France n/a
International Relations under Islamic Law (Shari’a): Dar al-Harb (House of War) vs. Dar al-Islam (House of Islam) Mar. 2012 n/a PDF, 280KB
Inter-Religious Marriage July 2010 Indonesia PDF, 111KB
Laws Criminalizing Apostasy May 2014 23 countries PDF, 215KB
Legal Restrictions on Religious Slaughter of Animals in Europe Sept. 2019 25 countries PDF, 346KB
Legal Restrictions on Religious Slaughter in Europe Mar. 2018 21 countries PDF, 287KB
The Role of Islamic Law in Tunisia’s Constitution and Legislation Post-Arab Spring Mar. 2011 Tunisia PDF, 148KB
Prohibtion of Interfaith Marriage Sept. 2015 29 countries PDF, 301KB
State Anti-conversion Laws in India October 2018 India PDF, 538KB
What is Sharia Law? June 2011 n/a n/a

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Science and Technology

Regulation of Artificial Intelligence Jan. 2019 63 jurisdictions PDF, 3.09MB

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Taxation and Corporations

Disclosure of Beneficial Ownership July 2017 European Union; 29 countries PDF, 390KB

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Travel Requirements, Visas, and Foreigners' Rights

European Union: Status of Unaccompanied Children Arriving at the EU Borders Sept. 2014 European Union PDF, 390KB
Legal Requirements for Travel by Unaccompanied Minors July 2014 El Salvador; Guatemala; Honduras; Mexico PDF, 102KB

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Treaties and International Agreements

Trade Implications of Brexit: Lessons from Austria’s Accession and Greenland’s Withdrawal Apr. 2017 Austria; Greenland PDF, 177KB

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War Crimes, Terrorism, and National Security

Counterterrorism and Justice Sept. 2015 Turkey PDF, 390KB
Crimes Against Humanity  Apr. 2010 51 countries; European Union PDF, 315KB
Genocide, Crimes Against Humanity, and War Crimes Jurisdiction  Nov. 2016 149 jurisdictions PDF, 683KB
Law on Freezing Revenues Designated for the Palestinian Authority Mar. 2019 Israel PDF, 217KB
Laws Prohibiting Investments in Controversial Weapons  Nov. 2016 Belgium; Ireland; Italy; Liechtenstein; Luxembourg; Netherlands; Spain; Switzerland PDF, 586KB
Legal Aspect of War in Georgia Aug. 2008 Russia PDF, 170KB
Legal Aspects of Prisoner Exchanges  Nov. 2014 Israel PDF, 171KB
Legal Provisions on Fighting Extremism  Nov. 2014 China; Pakistan; Russia; Tajikistan PDF, 589KB
Legality of the Decision to Release Convicted Palestinians in the Context of Peace Negotiations Aug. 2013 Israel PDF, 185KB
Norwegian Criminal Law and the July 22, 2011, Massacre Aug. 2011 Norway PDF, 212KB
Participation of Victims of Terrorism in Criminal Appeals Mar. 2013 Israel PDF, 65KB
Pre-Charge Detention for Terrorist Suspects Oct. 2008 United Kingdom PDF, 354KB
Response to Terrorism Sept. 2015 Algeria; Morocco; Saudi Arabia PDF, 928KB
Terrorism Laws Oct. 2008 Australia see report
Treatment of Foreign Fighters Dec, 2014 73 countries; United Nations; European Union PDF, 486KB
Turkey: Recent Developments in National and Public Security Law Nov. 2015 Turkey PDF, 368KB
WWII POW and Forced Labor Compensation Cases Sept. 2008 Japan PDF, 636KB

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Last Updated: 05/28/2021