LC Update for ALA
Update for 2020 ALA Midwinter Meeting: June - December, 2019
Robin Dale, Associate Librarian for Library Services
Service units, divisions, and offices within the Library have submitted the information in this document, which is being issued in advance of the American Library Association (ALA) 2020 Midwinter Meeting, Philadelphia, Pa., January 24-28, 2020. The document covers initiatives undertaken at the Library of Congress since the ALA 2019 Annual Conference, Washington, DC, June 20-25, 2019. The information here is valid as of January 13, 2020.
Library of Congress Exhibit Booth
The Library of Congress Exhibit Booth is no. 1607 in the Pennsylvania Convention Center. The Library’s Booth manager is Michelle Spezzacatena. Staff will be present to hand out promotional items and documents and respond to questions from ALA attendees. There will be a video about the Library, LOC trivia games, and a selfie screen at the Booth but no theater presentations.
Library of Congress employees who will be present at the Booth are Lauren Algee, Judith Cannan, Sasha Dowdy, Paul Frank, Xander Harcourt, Katie Klenkel, Jarrod MacNeil, Kahin Mohammad, Monica Mohindra, Jacob Nadal, Hien Nguyen, Caroline Saccucci, Erin Sidwell, Dominick Spinelli, Lara Szypszak, Iris Taylor, Dani Thurber, Jodi Williamschen, and Min Zhang.
Exhibit Booth hours are:
- Friday, January 24 - Opening Reception on the Exhibit Floor - 5:30pm - 7:00pm
- Saturday, January 25 - 9:00am - 5:00pm
- Sunday, January 26 - 9:00am - 5:00pm
- Monday, January 27- 9:00am - 2:00pm
OFFICE OF THE LIBRARIAN
Katherine “Kaffie” Milikin was appointed the Library of Congress’ director of development/campaign manager, effective August 5, 2019.
April Slayton was appointed director for communications, effective November 18, 2019. William Ryan was appointed deputy director for communications, effective November 18, 2019.
Office of Business Enterprises
CDS (Cataloging Distribution Service)
CDS has updated its MARC open-access datasets in its service “MDSConnect.” The new datasets include nearly 25 million MARC records, as distributed in the 2016 unabridged Retrospective file sets, in UTF8 and XML formats. They are made available primarily for research and development uses and remain free to the public. Visit http://www.loc.gov/cds/products/marcDist.php for more information.
Chief Operating Officer
FEDLINK is an organization of federal agencies working together to achieve optimum use of the resources and facilities of federal libraries and information centers. By promoting common services, streamlining procurement for commercial information resources, coordinating and sharing available resources, and providing continuing professional education, FEDLINK supports federal libraries in their missions to provide information services to their agencies, the Congress, the federal courts, and the American people.
Registration for FEDLINK accounts for fiscal 2020 is open. The form to request a new agency account for FEDLINK assisted acquisition services is available at http://www.loc.gov/flicc/onlinedoc/FIT/NewAccount.pdf [PDF]. The form to request an interagency agreement for a FEDLINK account is at http://www.loc.gov/flicc/onlinedoc/FIT/Registration.pdf [PDF]. Questions can be sent to email@example.com or phoned to (202) 707-4900.
Looking ahead to fiscal 2021, FEDLINK Transfer Pay fees will increase from 6.75 percent to 7.50 percent. Direct Express fees will remain the same at the current level of .75 percent. This is FEDLINK’s first baseline fee increase since 2010.
The nomination period for the 2019 FEDLINK awards has been extended through January 31, 2020. Each year, FEDLINK recognizes achievement in federal librarianship with awards for Large Federal Library, Small Federal Library, Federal Librarian of the Year, and Federal Library Technician of the Year. The awards will be presented at the FEDLINK Spring Expo, June 3-4, 2020.
CONGRESSIONAL RELATIONS OFFICE (CRO)
Summary of Fiscal 2020 Appropriations
The chart below includes appropriations and the effect of offsetting collections authority and unobligated prior year collections that decrease the appropriations in Copyright Office, S&E and LC, S&E:
|Library Account||Fiscal 2019||Fiscal 2020 Request||Fiscal 2020 Omnibus (H.R. 1865)|
|LC Salaries & Expenses
*LC, S&E Offsetting Collections
Total Appropriation, LC, S&E
*CO, S&E Offsetting Collections, PYUB
Total Appropriation, COP, S&E
|Congressional Research Service (CRS)||125,688,000||121,572,000||120,495,000|
|National Library Service for Blind and Print Disabled (NLS)||52,783,000||59,646,000||58,563,000|
|Total Budget Authority
*Total Offsetting Collections, PYUB
The Library’s fiscal 2020 budget [PDF], prepared by the Library of Congress Financial Services Directorate (FSD), requested $802.78 million in total budget authority, comprised of $747.08 million in annual appropriations and $55.70 million in offsetting receipts authority. The request sought to support continuous modernization in all areas, including IT, infrastructure, business process and targeted workforce skills, and placed a focus on increasing access and focusing on user-centered customer service to Congress and the American people.
Just before the end of December 2019 recess, Congress passed and the President signed into law a fiscal 2020 funding bill (H.R.1865) that included a $23.13 million (3 percent) increase in total budget authority for the Library, across various funding accounts.
Some key programs funded include:
- $10 million for enriching the Thomas Jefferson Building visitor experience, bringing the federal investment in the project to $20 million;
- $3.59 million for the Veterans History Project, an increase of $1.2 million;
- $7 million to continue phase two of the agency’s data center transformation and network modernization project;
- $5 million to modernize the Braille and Audio Reading by Download (BARD) website to enhance service to patrons;
- $2.375 million to increase the supply of NLS talking book machines and Braille eReaders.
Within report language, the Committee, among other directives:
- Required the Library and the Copyright Office to develop integrated master schedules and critical paths for IT modernization efforts to be updated on a rolling basis as milestones are met and modernization moves forward;
- Encouraged increased outreach to minority serving institutions and requested that the Library report to Congress on its efforts;
- Directed the Copyright Office to study and to report to Congress within 18 months on the market impacts of the expiration of the satellite subsidy under the 2014 Satellite Television Extension and Localism Reauthorization Act;
- Urged the Library to convene a public meeting at least once a year during the next two years to discuss public access to legislative information, along with the House Clerk, Secretary of the Senate, and Government Publishing Office and to report to Congress on the meeting’s outcomes and recommendations.
Changes to Library Legislative Authorities
The Library of Congress Technical Corrections Act of 2019 was signed into law on December 20, 2019, as part of the fiscal 2020 funding bill. The bill included many important updates to Library authorities to allow the agency to continue to provide the most effective and efficient service possible to Congress and the American people. These changes included:
- Expanding the American Folklife Center Board to add the Secretary of Veterans Affairs (VA) and the Director of the Institute of Museum and Library Services (IMLS) to its statutory membership to facilitate closer collaboration on key cultural programs;
- Updating NLS’s authorizing statute to modernize its delivery model; implement changes reflecting the recently ratified Marrakesh copyright treaty (including adopting an updated eligibility definition to include persons with perceptual or reading disabilities, such as dyslexia) and authorizing NLS to provide BARD service to the national libraries of treaty member countries to facilitate international exchange; and
- Providing additional support staff for the Copyright Royalty Judge program to support the demand on their division as the creative industry becomes increasingly digital and following the enactment of the Music Modernization Act in 2018.
Copyright Office Modernization Legislation
In summer 2019, the Senate Judiciary Committee Intellectual Property (IP) Subcommittee held an oversight hearing for the U.S. Copyright Office, focusing on enterprise Copyright Office modernization, implementation of the Music Modernization Act, and the creation of a copyright small claims tribunal, among other topics. Chairman Thom Tillis (R-NC) announced the convening of a congressional working group to draft legislation on Copyright modernization. According to press statements from his office, the bill is expected to provide the Office with the appropriate structural autonomy and necessary resources to support America’s creators in the 21st century. The bill is expected to be released early in 2020.
Modernization has been an area of significant attention in Congress during the past several months, with the Senate Rules and Administration Committee holding a hearing on IT modernization this past November and the IP Subcommittee holding its second hearing on Copyright Office Modernization in December.
Library of Congress Oversight and Appropriations Committees
|Joint Committee on the Library of Congress|
|Committee on House Administration|
Rodney Davis (R-IL), Ranking Member
Mark Walker (R-NC)
Barry Loudermilk (R-GA)
|Senate Committee on Rules and Administration|
Roy Blunt (R-MO), Chairman
Richard C. Shelby (R-AL)
Mitch McConnell (R-KY)
Lamar Alexander (R-TN)
Pat Roberts (R-KS)
Ted Cruz (R-TX)
Shelley Moore Capito (R-WV)
Roger F. Wicker (R-MS)
Deb Fischer (R-NE)Cindy Hyde-Smith (R-MS)
Amy Klobuchar (D-MN), Ranking Member
Dianne Feinstein (D-CA)
Chuck Schumer (D-NY)
Dick Durbin (D-IL)
Tom Udall (D-NM)
Mark Warner (D-VA)
Patrick J. Leahy (D-VT)
Angus Stanley King, Jr. (I-ME)
Catherine Cortez Masto (D-NV)
|House Legislative Branch Appropriations Subcommittee|
Tim Ryan (D-OH), Chairman
Dutch Ruppersberger, III (D-MD), Vice Chair
Katherine M. Clark (D-MA)
Ed Case (D-HI)
Nita M. Lowey (D-NY), Ex Officio, Voting
|Senate Legislative Branch Appropriations Subcommittee|
Cindy Hyde-Smith (R-MS), Chairwoman
Richard C. Shelby (R-AL)
James Lankford (R-OK)
Chris Murphy (D-CT), Ranking Member
Chris Van Hollen, Jr. (D-MD)
Patrick J. Leahy (D-VT), Ex Officio, Non-Voting
|Senate Judiciary Committee|
Lindsey Graham, USAFR (Ret) (R-SC), Chairman
Chuck Grassley (R-IA)
John Cornyn (R-TX)
Mike Lee (R-UT)
Ted Cruz (R-TX)
Ben Sasse (R-NE)
Josh Hawley (R-MO)
Thom Tillis (R-NC)
Joni Ernst (R-IA)
Mike Crapo (R-ID)
John Kennedy (R-LA)
Marsha Blackburn (R-TN)
|House Judiciary Committee|
|House Subcommittee on Courts, Intellectual Property and the Internet|
Martha Roby (R-AL) Ranking Member
Steve Chabot (R-OH)
Jim Jordan (R-OH)
John Ratcliffe (R-TX)
Matt Gaetz (R-FL)
Mike Johnson (R-LA)
Andy Biggs (R-AZ)
Guy Reschenthaler (R-PA)
Ben Cline (R-VA)
|Senate Subcommittee on Intellectual Property|
Chris Coons (D-DE), Ranking Member
Patrick J. Leahy (D-VT)
Sheldon Whitehouse (D-RI)
Mazie K. Hirono (D-HI)
Dick Durbin (D-IL)
Dick Blumenthal (D-CT)
Kamala Harris (D-CA)
UNITED STATES COPYRIGHT OFFICE
Karyn A. Temple resigned as Register of Copyrights, effective January 4, 2020, to accept a position in the private sector. The Librarian of Congress named Maria Strong as Acting Register of Copyrights and Director of the U.S. Copyright Office, effective January 5, 2020. Strong also serves as Associate Register of Copyrights and Director of Policy and International Affairs.
The Office also named two deputy directors since ALA Annual Conference in June 2019: Kimberley A. Isbell, deputy director for policy and international affairs, and Maren Read, deputy director of public records and repositories. The Register appointed David Brunton senior advisor for organizational policy and special projects. Cassie Sciortino joined the Office as this year’s Barbara A. Ringer Fellow, and the Office of Registration Policy and Practice hired eighteen examiners.
The Office continued its modernization webinar series with three more installments. Webinar topics included the Enterprise Copyright System, recordation modernization, and business process reengineering. Webinars are held every other month on various modernization topics.
The Office continued to work on multiple modernization efforts:
Enterprise Copyright System (ECS)
The ECS is an all-encompassing system that covers all aspects of copyright administration. The ECS user experience initiative held its kickoff meeting June 25, 2019. This project is examining the registration service from the perspective of the copyright examiner, supervisor, and manager. Additionally, the Requirements Working Group began in September 2019, to discuss, develop, refine, prioritize, and deconflict business requirements for the ECS.
Modernized Recordation System
As part of the ECS, the recordation component is being developed. The focus of modernizing the recordation system is to convert the current paper-based system into a web-based platform. The Office plans to release a pilot program of the new platform in spring 2020.
Business Process Reengineering (BPR)
BPR at the Office started in July 2019 and is anticipated to conclude in June 2020. BPR is occurring across eight selected business units—Administrative Services Office (ASO), Copyright Acquisitions Division (CAD), Office of the Chief Financial Officer (CFO), Office of Public Information and Education (PIE) Receipt Analysis and Control Division (RACD), Office of Registration Policy and Practice (RPP), Office of Public Records and Repositories (PRR), and the Copyright Modernization Office (CMO). It is concentrating on sixty-six processes across these units. Two units have completed theirs and one is currently in process.
Office of Personnel Management (OPM) Study
The Copyright Office has contracted with OPM to conduct an organizational analysis and workload study. The Office is reviewing OPM’s findings from the work logs that staff completed earlier this fiscal year.
Organizational Change Management (OCM)
The Office held the initial kickoff meeting for the organizational change management effort on September 12, 2019. This effort focuses on how people are affected before, during, and after a change and concentrates on improving internal communication, establishing best practices, building trust, empowering employees, and more.
Public Record System
Development of a new Copyright Office Public Record system began in September 2019. The new system will leverage a user-centered design to support robust searching capabilities and the ability to view relationships between records.
Business Intelligence Tool
In October 2019, the Office acquired a business intelligence tool. This tool will allow for data visualizations and analytics.
Electronic Title List Validator
The Office released a new tool designed to assist those who are submitting an optional electronic title list (ETL) when submitting a transfer of copyright ownership or other document pertaining to a copyright for recordation. In the past, the Office rejected some ETLs because of issues that submitters could have corrected before submitting information. The new ETL Validator Tool provides the public the opportunity to evaluate the acceptability of their ETL and correct any issues prior to submission.
Orrin G. Hatch–Bob Goodlatte Music Modernization Act
Enacted on October 11, 2018, the Music Modernization Act (MMA) is one of the most significant updates to copyright law in decades. The act updates the music licensing landscape to better facilitate legal licensing of music by digital services and to address creators’ needs. Among other things, it modifies the existing section 115 mechanical license for reproduction and distribution of musical works in phonorecords (which was previously obtained by licensees on a per-work, song-by-song basis) to establish a new blanket license for digital music providers to engage in specific covered activities (namely, permanent downloads, limited downloads, and interactive streaming). The act also brings sound recordings fixed before February 15, 1972, partially into the federal copyright system by extending remedies for copyright infringement to owners of these works.
The Copyright Office, continuing its earlier efforts to inform Congress of concerns with the music licensing system, briefed Congress on both the current state of the law and the act’s different provisions. Staff also advised various individual offices of Congress regarding all aspects of this historic legislation, resulting in revised legislative language and furthering the consensus nature of the bill. As a result, both the House and Senate Judiciary Committee reports noted that “[t]he Copyright Office has the knowledge and expertise regarding music licensing through its past rulemakings and recent assistance to the Committee during the drafting of this legislation.” (H.R. Rep. No. 115-651, at 14 (2018).)
Copyright Alternative in Small-Claims Enforcement Act (CASE Act)
In May 2019, Rep. Hakeem Jeffries (D-NY) introduced the CASE Act in the House of Representatives as H.R. 2426. The Office’s 2013 report on Copyright Small Claims formed the basis for this legislation, which creates a voluntary small claims tribunal in the Office, creating a streamlined process for litigants. The Office briefed both committees and engaged in several discussions with stakeholders and specific congressional offices concerning the bill. On October 22, 2019, the House voted to pass the bill.
Sen. John Kennedy (R-LA) introduced a companion bill in the Senate as S. 1273, and on September 12, 2019, the Senate Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on Intellectual Property passed that bill out of committee.
Studies and Reports
In October 2019, the Office presented to Congress a final proposed schedule and analysis of fees for Copyright Office services. This followed an updated notice in June 2019 seeking additional comment regarding changes related to the fee schedule for document recordation and new prospective group registration options. By law, the Register may institute the new fees 120 days after the proposed schedule is submitted to Congress, unless Congress enacts a law within the 120-day period stating that it does not approve the schedule. Absent congressional action, the Office expects to enact a final rule instituting a change in fees in spring 2020.
Unclaimed Royalties Study
The Office held a one-day symposium on December 6, 2019, to initiate its public study on unclaimed royalties, required by the Music Modernization Act. The study will analyze the best practices that the mechanical licensing collective may implement to effectively identify copyright owners and unclaimed royalties of musical works while encouraging copyright owners to claim royalties and ultimately reduce the occurrence of unclaimed royalties. The educational symposium facilitated discussion on issues relevant to the upcoming Unclaimed Royalties Study by a broad range of music industry participants and other interested members of the public. The symposium featured discussions from representatives of the mechanical licensing collective and the digital licensee coordinator, artists, and other music industry professionals.
Rulemakings and Regulations
On July 5, 2019, the Office designated a mechanical licensing collective (MLC) and a digital licensee coordinator (DLC) to carry out key functions under the Music Modernization Act (MMA). The MMA directs the Register of Copyrights to designate an entity as the MLC to administer the blanket license and distribute collected royalties to songwriters and music publishers. The MLC is tasked with developing and maintaining a comprehensive database of musical works and sound recordings, which will be publicly available. The MMA also allows the Register to designate a DLC, which will represent digital music services in the administration of the license and in the determination of the administrative assessment fee paid by digital music providers for the reasonable costs of establishing and operating the new MLC. The Register designated the Mechanical Licensing Collective, Inc. as the MLC, and the Digital Licensee Coordinator, Inc. as the DLC, with the Librarian’s approval. On September 24, 2019, the Office issued a notice of inquiry seeking public comment regarding additional regulatory activity under the MMA, specifically the implementation regulations required for the new blanket section 115 “mechanical” license for making and distributing digital phonorecords of musical works, which will become available in 2021.
The Copyright Office published two final rules on November 12, 2019, making technical amendments to its regulations for the group registration options for serials and newspapers. For group serials, the final rule ends the phase-out period for paper applications and physical deposits. Beginning December 31, 2019, applicants must use the online application and upload a complete digital copy of each issue through the electronic registration system. For group newspapers, the final rule ends the phase-out period for microfilm. Beginning January 1, 2020, applicants must upload a digital copy of each issue; microfilm submissions will no longer be accepted for purposes of registration.
On December 4, 2019, the Office published a notice of inquiry requesting written comments on issues relating to online publication, including whether and how to amend its registration regulations and other considerations relevant to ensuring continued thorough assistance to Congress.
The Copyright Office worked closely with the Department of Justice (DOJ) to develop the government’s position in Georgia v. Public.Resource.org, which concerns the copyrightability of annotations to state laws. Office attorneys also advised DOJ regarding the government’s position in Google LLC v. Oracle Am., Inc., on petition from the Federal Circuit. This case concerns copying of portions of Oracle’s Java computer code by Google to develop its Android operating system.
In the Court of Appeals, the Office advised DOJ in connection with the filing of amicus briefs in two circuit court matters: Muench Photography, Inc. v. McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. and Skidmore v. Led Zeppelin. Muench concerns how the statutory requirement to list the author and title of the work under section 409 relates to registrations of collective works. Skidmore v. Led Zeppelin presented an issue of first impression before the circuit courts concerning whether the scope of a copyright interest in an unpublished musical work registered under the 1909 act is determined by the deposit submitted to the Office.
Additionally, the Office responded to five requests from district courts to advise whether inaccurate information on a certificate of registration, if known, would have caused the Register of Copyrights to refuse registration.
The Office continued to assist DOJ regarding the government’s defense against constitutional challenges to two provisions of Title 17—section 407’s mandatory deposit requirement and section 1201’s anti-circumvention and anti-trafficking provisions.
The Copyright Office released a draft communications plan, Audience First: U.S. Copyright Office Communications Strategy, in September 2019. The plan will guide the Office in presenting a cohesive approach and focused messaging to audiences with all levels of copyright knowledge and experience. Staff throughout the Office submitted comments. The Office released the final plan December 31, 2019.
The Office held two Copyright Matters events in the second half of 2019: “Create an Adventure with Copyright” on July 31 and “Quoth the Raven: Edgar Allan Poe & Derivative Works” on October 29.
The Office released the first installments to the new Learning Engine video series on its website and YouTube channel. Released titles are Welcome to the Copyright Office; What is Copyright?; Copyright on the Internet; Hey, That’s My Idea!; Fair Use; Registration; and Public Domain. Topics in production include copyright records, searching the public record, recordation, and copyright myths.
The Office increased its outreach to libraries with the Copyright Information Station pilot program. The pilot program has three participants: Alexandria City Libraries, Loudoun County Libraries (Rust Branch), and Howard University’s Founder’s Library. Designed by the Office and led by trained library staff, Copyright Information Stations increase public access to copyright resources through a network of libraries. They also help libraries supplement their collections and resources with the high-quality, current, and accessible information the public demands. At the Copyright Information Stations, Office-trained library staff offer in-person help for many of the public’s copyright needs, including navigating copyright registration and finding copyright information online.
The Office continued to use Twitter to provide legislative updates; share copyright facts; and announce Office rulemakings, events, and system maintenance. A new feature, Trivia Tuesdays, posed copyright-related trivia questions with answers posted later in the day.
The Office posted blog entries to Copyright: Creativity at Work in fiscal 2019. Posts included Office news, registration practice updates, law and policy developments, copyright basics, and copyright lore. The Office’s blog provides the public with more detailed information on issues of interest and goes more in depth into developments than is addressed in the Office’s news emails.
The Office developed a press strategy. Members of the press now have a dedicated email address and phone number to contact the Office. There also is a Latest Press Updates website.
The Office hosted an open house August 14, 2019, showcasing each division’s work.
The Office completed gathering feedback on navigability and content availability of copyright.gov. This exercise did not look at the recordation system or the online registration system (eCO) but focused on the rest of the website. The Office is analyzing the feedback and is writing a plan to update the website.
LIBRARY COLLECTIONS AND SERVICES GROUP
Jane Sánchez was permanently appointed Deputy Librarian of Congress for Library Collections and Services on June 10, 2019. She also continues as Law Librarian of Congress. The Library Collections and Services Group comprises Library Services, the Law Library of Congress, the National Library Service for the Blind and Print Disabled, Internships and Fellowships Programs, and the John S. Kluge Center.
Sánchez led the initiative to centralize the LCSG’s administrative and operational functions. The new organizational structure was ready for operations by October 1, 2019, but could not legally take effect until the Library had a budget for fiscal 2020. (With the rest of the federal government, the Library operated under two continuing resolutions, October 1- November 21 and November 22-Decemeber 21, 2019.) To leverage fully the talents of the staff currently supporting these functions, staff were realigned from the Law Library Office of Administrative Operations, the Library Services Employee Resources and Management Team, and the Library Services Financial Management Team to form LCSG Operations. Joseph Cappello was appointed director for LCSG Operations. While he is on detail as the Library’s acting Chief Human Capital Officer, Roberto Salazar is acting director for LCSG Operatoins. Within LCSG Operations, Lisa Stubbs is director for Financial Management.
Colleen Shogan, Assistant Deputy Librarian, LCSG, has accepted a position as Senior Vice President and Director of the David Rubenstein
INTERNSHIP AND FELLOWSHIP PROGRAMS (IFP)
One Portal, Many Opportunities
Internship and Fellowship Programs (IFP) supports the placement of new talent throughout the Library of Congress. The Library hosts approximately 300 interns annually. IFP supports Library staff and interns, and provides a one-stop shop for opportunity seekers through the Internships and Fellowships Portal, a publicly accessible website designed to promote opportunities and recruit candidates for the Library's many fellowship, internship, residency and volunteer opportunities. The Portal is available at URL: <www.loc.gov/ifp>
Archives, History, and Heritage Advanced Internship Pilot Project
The Library is moving forward with a second year of an exciting new internship, in collaboration with Howard University, to provide master’s and doctoral students the opportunity to augment their academic studies through experiential learning, professional development, and mentoring while helping to organize and catalog many items in the Library’s collections. The interns will work side-by-side with Library staff to learn the standards and techniques to properly arrange and provide online descriptions for five significant collections related to African-American history and culture, from the papers of soprano Jessye Norman to public radio and television programs about the Civil Rights Movement in the South. Student stipends for the Archives, History, and Heritage Advanced Internship Program are generously provided by Craig and Diane Welburn, members of the Library’s James Madison Council private sector support group.
Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities National Internship Program
The Hispanic Association of Colleges and Universities National Internship Program (HNIP) and the Library in 2019 celebrated 20 years of partnership in 2019, which has benefited more than 330 interns by providing on-the-job training and educational enrichment. In fall 2019, the Library hosted 18 The Library was awarded Outstanding Federal Sector Partner in 2019, largely for its work with HNIP. IFP offers enrichment sessions that enhance each intern’s experience beyond on-the-job training that provide opportunities to explore a wide range of professional development activities and mentorships with former HNIP interns who went on to federal service. Interested undergraduate and graduate students may apply from URL <www.hacu.net/hacu/HNIP.asp >
Junior Fellows Summer Internship Program
The Library is hosting more than 30 participants in the 2020 Junior Fellows Summer Intern Program for a ten-week internship, beginning May 26, to explore the Library’s collections and tackle a range of 21st-century information management challenges. The Junior Fellows will be assigned to a variety of projects across the agency. The Junior Fellows’ efforts broaden access to and awareness of the Library’s unique collections, while simultaneously extending their own educational portfolios. The Library will celebrate their work at the annual Display Day July 22, 2020, 10:00 am to 3:00 pm, which will showcase their projects. For more information, please visit URL <www.loc.gov/item/internships/juniorfellows>.
Librarians-in-Residence at the Library of Congress Program
In July 2020, the Library of Congress will welcome its third cohort of Librarians-in-Residence, which is a testimony of its success. The program gives early-career librarians the opportunity to gain meaningful work experience in the following areas of specialization: acquisitions and collection development, cataloging and metadata, collection preservation, reference and instruction, and systems and standards.
The program accepts applications from emerging professionals who have completed a master’s degree in an ALA-accredited library and information science program within the last year and a half prior to starting their residency. Details are available on the program’s website, at URL <www.loc.gov/librarians/librarians-in-residence>.
Upward Bound Program
Since 2000, the Library of Congress has hosted interns participating in the Harvey Mudd College Upward Bound Program-Georgetown Internship to provide mentoring that helps students understand and appreciate the opportunities available to them by earning a bachelor’s degree. In 2020, the Library will continue its support of the program by welcoming another cohort of students with the intent of inspiring them to develop and hone their academic and professional skills. The Internship is the zenith of a three-year process for the individuals, culminating in the intensive, five-week summer session. While in D.C., the students engage in a number of activities in addition to their internship, including coursework in U.S. history and literature, supervised study halls, seminars, and field trips to national monuments, historic landmarks, and colleges and universities. The program is funded by the U.S. Department of Education.
ALA/PLA Inclusive Internship Initiative
The Library is a key partner in the ALA Public Library Association’s Inclusive Internship, which celebrated its third year with a closing ceremony in the Thomas Jefferson Building in September 2019. The program introduces high school students from diverse backgrounds to careers in librarianship, matching the students with public librarians. IFP provided direct outreach to students and organizers at the closing ceremony, which included a compelling presentation from the Principal Deputy Librarian of Congress.
LAW LIBRARY OF CONGRESS
Aslihan Bulut was appointed Deputy Law Librarian of Congress, effective September 16, 2019.
The Law Library continued its leadership role in the Library of Congress’s wide-ranging LibGuides program at URL <guides.loc.gov>. The soft launch began in October 2018, and we celebrated the official hard launch to the public on May 1, 2019, in honor of Law Day.
In fiscal 2019, the Law Library prepared 432 legal research reports, special studies and memoranda for the legislative branch—an increase of 30 percent over fiscal 2018. It prepared 312 reports for executive branch agencies and 11 foreign law reports for the federal judiciary. Many reports are publicly available at URL <www.law.gov>.
The Law Library answered approximately 15,116 inquiries received in its reading room, electronically, or over the telephone. The Public Services Division answered 3,687 inquiries through Ask a Librarian, the Library’s virtual reference service. The Law Library also provided 163 seminars and orientations on legal and legislative research for 9,834 participants.
In fiscal 2019, the Law Library embarked on several digitization projects of its collections: the U.S. Congressional Serial Set (1,069 items from 1817 to 1995 digitized in fiscal 2019); Global Legal Research Directorate research reports (approximately 9,000 items); pre-1901 legal documents of New Spain and Mexico (321 items); and Spanish/Hispanic Legal Documents from the 15th to 19th centuries (approximately 2,500 items). The U.S. Congressional Serial Set is a collection of House and Senate Documents and House and Senate Reports that allow researchers to find information on laws, especially while studying legislative history. This multi-year project, when completed, will provide open access to a collection not currently freely available to the public and will offer improved access to the world’s largest and most comprehensive collection of legal materials through expanded digitization.
see also Library Collections and Services Group above
Alvert Banks was appointed Director for Digital Services, effective December 23, 2019.
Librarians in Residence
LIBRARY SERVICES / Acquisitions and Bibliographic Access Directorate (ABA)
Theron (Ted) Westervelt was appointed chief of the US/Anglo Division, ABA, effective September 30, 2019.
Jonathan Miyashiro was appointed supervisory library technician of the CIP Technical Team. CIP/DEWEY Section, US Programs, Law and Literature Division (USPRLL) effective November 10, 2019. Christine Dulaney was appointed chief of the Germanic and Slavic Division, effective January 5, 2020.
James Hafner retired as head of the Science, Medicine, and Agriculture Section, US Arts, Sciences, and Humanities Division (USASH), on December 13 [sic], 2019. Beatrice Ohta retired as head of the China Section, Asian and Middle Eastern Division, on December 31, 2019, after 52 years of service at the Library of Congress.
BIBFRAME (Bibliographic Framework Initiative)
The Network Development and MARC Standards Office (NDMSO) and the Policy, Training, and Cooperative Programs Division (PTCP) continue work on BIBFRAME development and testing. The scope of BIBFRAME Pilot Phase Two has expanded to include more than 100 Library of Congress catalogers, including staff members working in four of the six overseas offices--Cairo, Jakarta, Islamabad, and Nairobi. To help train the new pilot participants, a comprehensive Library of Congress BIBFRAME Manual was created. The manual is publicly available on the Catalogers Learning Workshop site, together with all associated training materials, and will be updated throughout the course of the pilot; please see URL <www.loc.gov/catworkshop/bibframe>.
Pilot participants create bibliographic descriptions in both the BIBFRAME Editor, expressed in the BIBFRAME data model, and in the Library of Congress Integrated Library System (ILS), expressed in the MARC 21 Bibliographic Format. The Library of Congress ILS is the database of record, necessitating the need for duplicate bibliographic descriptions. BIBFRAME testing includes input of bibliographic data using BIBFRAME 2.0 vocabulary, input of non-Latin scripts, and the ability to incorporate authority data. Data from the BIBFRAME 2.0 database, including MARC-to-BIBFRAME converted data and original descriptions by BIBFRAME pilot project participants, is available via the LC Linked Data Service: <id.loc.gov>.
Work has also focused on providing a fuller level of interaction with a live BIBFRAME 2.0 database consisting of the complete BIBFRAME conversion of the LC bibliographic file. Features of the database include user search capability and use of linked data queries to highlight relationships between resources. Search results in the BIBFRAME 2.0 database can be refined by subject facet. Merging and matching BIBFRAME 2.0 work descriptions in the database is underway and will continue to be refined throughout 2020. Data from the BIBFRAME 2.0 database is being distributed via the LC Linked Data Service: <id.loc.gov>.
PTCP and NDMSO staff members continued to exchange ideas about BIBFRAME with partners in the LD4P (Linked Data for Production) project, funded by the Mellon Foundation and led by Stanford University Libraries. Staff in PTCP and NDMSO completed initial BIBFRAME training for the seventeen institutions within the Program for Cooperative Cataloging that are members of the LD4P Cohort for the second phase of LD4P.
A draft of the critical programs for conversion of BIBFRAME descriptions to MARC records was completed, and testing began at LC and two LD4P institutions. Strong international interest was demonstrated at the 3rd annual European BIBFRAME Workshop, which was hosted by the Kungliga biblioteket (National Library of Sweden) in Stockholm in September 2019.
Cataloging in Publication (CIP) and Dewey Programs
Karl Debus-López, Chief of the U.S. Programs, Law, and Literature Division (USPRLL), can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org for questions related to the Cataloging in Publication (CIP), International Standard Serial Number (ISSN), and Children’s and Young Adults’ Cataloging (CYAC) programs. Caroline Saccucci, CIP and Dewey Program manager, can be reached at email@example.com.
CIP statistical information
In fiscal 2019, the CIP Program cataloged 53,121 CIP records for print and e-books. Of this total, members of the CIP Partnership Program contributed 5,876 CIP records. Contract catalogers completed 4,500 CIP records.
In fiscal 2019, the CIP Program created 10,778 e-book bibliographic records and received 15,843 e-book files from 119 publisher sftp accounts. 3,727 e-book files have been verified and ingested. Approximately 15,000 CIP e-books are now available for viewing at special computers in multiple reading rooms across the Library of Congress campus.
The Library received more than 37,000 e-books for titles published by Springer Nature through the Pre-assigned Control Number Program. The Library is using this large batch of e-books to develop policies and workflows for selecting, cataloging, and making available to our users e-book content from publishers. These policies and workflows can be used as models for other e-book acquisitions. Wherever possible, the Library will automate workflows and use metadata included within the e-books received from publishers to generate bibliographic and other data.
ECIP Cataloging Contract
The ECIP Cataloging Contract completed the first option year to catalog 4,500 CIP records. The second option year for 3,000 records is well underway. The contractor is providing Sears subject headings to works intended for a juvenile audience, in addition to the regular complement of subject analysis. CYAC (Children’s Literature and Young Adults’ Cataloging), music and legal titles, and non-English CIPs are not in scope for the contract. The contractor is responsible for all required NACO work but not for submitting Library of Congress Subject Heading (LCSH) and Library of Congress Classification (LCC) proposals, although the contract catalogers will identify a possible need for such proposals; designated subject experts in ABA will submit necessary proposals. On January 6, 2020, the contractor began a 4-month contract to complete the subject cataloging of 500 CIPs in the subject of religion. Caroline Saccucci, CIP and Dewey Program Manager, is the project manager.
PrePub Book Link
PrePub Book Link, the CIP and PCN application platform, has seen very heavy use since its launch on May 21, 2019, for publishers and authors to request CIP data. The CIP Program is working with a contractor to develop better functionality in key areas such as claiming unreceived books and the ONIX workflow for catalogers. PrePub Book Link conforms to current Library of Congress information security requirements and offers improved searching and routing functions in addition to the capability to generate an initial MARC format bibliographic record from the data submitted by the requesting publisher. Caroline Saccucci, who represents the Library of Congress on the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) Standing Committee on Subject Analysis and Access (IFLA SC SAA), attended the IFLA World Library and Information Congress in Athens, Greece. She gave a presentation about PrePub Book Link at the satellite meeting “Metadata Specialists in the Machine Age” held at Aristotle University in Thessaloniki on August 22, 2019.
Dewey statistical information
In fiscal 2019, the Library of Congress assigned 116,690 Dewey Decimal Classification (DDC) numbers to monograph and serial bibliographic records. CIP and Dewey Section classifiers and others assigned 61,500 Dewey numbers to monograph print records and 15,843 to CIP e-book records. Catalogers assigned 5,919 DDC numbers to monograph records using the AutoDewey software. The copy cataloging process resulted in 42,604 copied DDC numbers (i.e., MARC field 082, second indicator 4) in print monograph records. Three CIP Partnership Program libraries—Northwestern University, Queens (N.Y.) Library, and the U.S. Government Publishing Office—assigned 1,269 DDC numbers to the bibliographic records they created for the CIP Program. The U.S. ISSN Center in the USPRLL Division assigned 5,398 DDC to ISSN records.
In addition to DDC assignment, Dewey classifiers added Library of Congress Classification to 1,139 CIPs cataloged by the National Library of Medicine. Dewey classifiers also completed the subject cataloging (assignment of LCSH, LCC numbers, and shelflisting) for 86 ECIPs.
Dewey editorial project work
The Dewey Editorial Policy Committee (EPC) Meeting 142 took place at the Library of Congress, September 23-24, 2019. As the LC standing member, Caroline Saccucci attended, as did many of the LC Dewey classifiers. In particular, LC classifiers participated in the “LC Classifiers Forum” to give EPC members a chance to meet them and talk about trends in their disciplines. As part of the community engagement initiative of the OCLC Dewey editorial team, several LC classifiers worked with the DDC editors to create EPC exhibits in areas where they have expertise, and they presented their exhibits to EPC in person.
Cataloging Policy and Cooperative Cataloging
Staff changes and hiring
When the former Policy and Standards Division (PSD) and the Cooperative and Instructional Programs Division (COIN) merged to form the Policy, Training, and Cooperative Programs Division (PTCP) in June 2019, the new organizational structure called for two section heads or first-line supervisors. The vacancy announcement for these positions closed in November 2019. Judith Cannan, chief of PTCP, and a selection panel are tasked with making the selection from among the qualified applicants.
Ivey Glendon is the new product manager for Cataloger’s Desktop, the Library’s subscription, Web-enabled database of more than 300 cataloging tools and resources. The content of Desktop is managed by PTCP, while the contract to produce the database is administered in the Library’s Business Enterprises Directorate.
David Lucas Graves, a cooperative cataloging program specialist in PTCP, retired after nearly 32 years of service. Kate James, a cataloging policy specialist in the Division, resigned her position after 16 years of service. Manon Théroux was appointed to the position of cataloging policy specialist. Lesley Parilla joined the Division as an assistant specialist.
LC-PCC Policy Statements
The Library of Congress-Program for Cooperative Cataloging Policy Statements remain frozen as a result of the RDA Toolkit Restructure and Redesign Project (commonly known as the 3R Project); see URL <www.rdatoolkit.org/3Rproject>. The stabilized English-language text that resulted from the project has been released on the RDA Toolkit beta site and work on the development of policy statements and application profiles for that revised RDA text has commenced. Four joint LC-PCC task groups have been charged to make recommendations regarding these policy statements. A designated team of Policy, Training, and Cooperative Programs Division staff members has been working on preparing the policy statements, following a plan submitted to the PCC Policy Committee, and will be consulting regularly with the PCC throughout the development process: <www.loc.gov/aba/pcc/documents/PoCo-2019/BetaRDA-PoCo-Decisions.pdf [PDF]>.
LC-PCC Task Group on Diachronic Works in Beta RDA Toolkit
One of the four LC-PCC task groups is charged with identifying the LC-PCC policy statements concerning diachronic works that need to be added to the RDA Toolkit. A particular challenge is finding the appropriate location in the Toolkit for each statement, given the stipulations and new vocabulary of the IFLA standard Library Reference Model (LRM) for diachronic works as well as the lack of sequential numbering in the new Toolkit instructions. Treatment of monographic series under the LRM model is also a challenge. The group’s final report will be submitted in early 2020. Regina Reynolds, director of the U.S. ISSN Center in USPRLL, serves on the task group. It began work in August 2019 with the goal of presenting a report in 2020.
Bibliographic Record Control Numbers in Authority Records
The citation for the work being cataloged is the first MARC 670 field provided in proposals for Library of Congress Subject Headings, Genre/Form Terms, Medium of Performance Terms, and Demographic Group Terms. According to longstanding policy, field 670 subfield $a contains the LC bibliographic record control number (i.e., the LCCN) if applicable, the main entry, the title, and the publication date of the work.
In order to support linked data, the bibliographic record control number will be contained in subfield $w beginning in spring 2020. The subfield $w will appear as the last element in the field. The control number itself will be preceded by the MARC code for the agency to which the control number applies, enclosed in parentheses. For example:
Citation formatted according to current policy:
670 ## $a Work cat: 2015300502: Finding Julia, 2014: $b p. 13 (Bollinger family) p. 11 (Bollinger County, Missouri was named after George Frederick Bollinger, b. 1770. His German ancestors migrated from Zurich, Switzerland to Philadelphia in 1738)
Citation formatted according to new policy:
670 ## $a Work cat: Finding Julia, 2014: $b p. 13 (Bollinger family) p. 11 (Bollinger County, Missouri was named after George Frederick Bollinger, b. 1770. His German ancestors migrated from Zurich, Switzerland to Philadelphia in 1738) $w (DLC)2015300502
The LCCN will be provided in proposals made by LC catalogers. The LCCN will also be provided in SACO proposals made for CIPs that are cataloged by the CIP Partnership Program. “Work cat” citations in other SACO proposals may contain a single subfield $w that reflects either the local control number of the SACO institution or a bibliographic utility control number such as the OCLC number. Subfield $w will not be required for SACO proposals, other than for those made to support CIP cataloging.
Citations in existing authority records should not be revised to move to subfield $w an LCCN that appears in subfield $a, nor to add a control number to a citation that does not currently include a control number. When proposals are made to revise existing records, the citation for the work prompting the proposal should be formatted according to the new policy.
Pertinent instruction sheets in the Subject Headings Manual and the draft Genre/Form, Medium of Performance, and Demographic Group Terms manuals will be revised to reflect the new policy. The templates in the Proposal System will also be updated accordingly.
Further information, including the date of implementation, will be provided as it becomes available.
The better to support linked-data initiatives, “multiple” subdivisions are being cancelled from LCSH. “Multiple” subdivisions are a special type of subdivision that automatically gives free-floating status to analogous subdivisions used under the same heading.
The initial focus of the project is the multiple subdivisions that are used after the topical subdivision –Religious aspects. Since June 2019, 294 authority records have been cancelled and 2,471 have been created. In addition, 75 validation records have been redesignated as full authority records.
The continued existence of a multiple subdivision for a particular topic cannot be assumed. It is therefore imperative to search LCSH at all times, in order to determine whether the multiple has been cancelled. Catalogers may remember the multiples Birth control—Religious aspects—Buddhism, [Christianity, etc.] and Birth control—Religious aspects—Baptists, [Catholic Church, etc.], for example, but they were cancelled in May 2019 and replaced by 20 individual authority records. Because the multiples were cancelled, all headings of the type Birth control—Religious aspects—[religion or Christian denomination] must have an authority record; that is, they must be proposed as needed.
Individual multiple subdivisions should continue to be used according to the instructions in Subject Headings Manual H 1090 until they are cancelled.
The community may keep abreast of progress on this project by consulting the Multiples Cancellation Project website at URL <www.loc.gov/aba/cataloging/subject/multiplescancellationproject.html>. The project will not proceed alphabetically, so those wishing to update their local catalogs are encouraged to download the spreadsheet periodically and sort it by the date of cancellation.
Additional information about the project can be found on the project website.
Change of Authorized Access Point for Kiev, Ukraine
The authorized access point for the capital city of the Ukraine was Kiev (Ukraine), based on the conventional name “Kiev,” as determined by the U.S. Board of Geographic Names. The BGN has now changed the status of the name “Kiev” from conventional to variant, and there is no conventional name.
As a result, the authorized access point for the city has been changed to Kyïv (Ukraine), which is based on the ALA/LC Romanization Table for Ukrainian. All associated LCSH authority records have been updated, and LC is in the process of revising all of the associated name authority records.
Classification Web 4
An updated interface for Classification Web, the Library’s subscription Web-enabled database that is the authoritative source for the Library of Congress Classification, was successfully released during the weekend of August 24-25, 2019. This significant upgrade to the user interface includes all of the functionality of Classification Web 3, but incorporates modern web navigation techniques and a responsive design that runs on a wide range of hardware from desktop computers to tablets and smart phones. Classification Web 4 runs on Mozilla Firefox, Google Chrome, Microsoft Edge, and Safari, but the navigation features do not function properly on Internet Explorer.
Moratorium on LCDGT Proposals
Library of Congress Demographic Group Terms (LCDGT) is intended to describe the creators of, and contributors to, resources, and also the intended audience of resources. Terms may be assigned in bibliographic records and in authority records for works and expressions.
The moratorium on proposals for new and revised terms that was enacted in February 2018 is still in place while LCDGT’s structure and principles are thoroughly evaluated.
National Union Catalog of Manuscript Collections (NUCMC)
The Policy, Training, and Cooperative Programs Division (PTCP) oversees the NUCMC program, through which catalogers at the Library of Congress create bibliographic records in OCLC WorldCat, and associated authority records, for the archival collections of repositories that meet the program’s eligibility requirements. PTCP has concluded a pilot project using the Social Networks and Archival Context (SNAC) project, hosted by the National Archives and Records Administration and the University of Virginia, for NUCMC collections. A report has been submitted to Library Services and the report’s findings presented to the SNAC project leaders.
Program for Cooperative Cataloging
The Policy, Training, and Cooperative Programs Division (PTCP) serves as the secretariat for the Program for Cooperative Cataloging (PCC), an international consortium of approximately 700 libraries and other institutions that sets cataloging standards, delivers training, and supports innovations in cataloging and bibliographic formats. The four components of the program are: NACO, the Name Authority Cooperative; BIBCO, the monographic Bibliographic Cooperative; CONSER, the Cooperative Online Serials bibliographic component; and SACO, the Subject Authority Cooperative, which facilitates contributions to LCSH, LCGFT, LCDGT, LCMPT, and LCC.
During fiscal 2019, the four PCC programs attracted 51 new institutions, including 19 institutions from outside the U.S. Of these new institutions, 19 were institutional members and 32 were funnel members. PCC funnel-level membership is granted to institutions that cannot fulfill the requirements of the other levels of membership, and to those organizations that wish to join a funnel in addition to their existing level of membership to benefit from the funnel’s language, subject, format, or locality focus.
The primary focus of staff members in PTCP who are engaged in supporting PCC has been on preparing policy statements for the beta RDA Toolkit and providing essential support to PCC members.
The PCC Policy Committee met November 7-8, 2019, at the Library of Congress. Highlights of the meeting included an update on progress made in meeting the program’s strategic directions, plans for LC-PCC Policy Statements in the beta version of RDA Toolkit, standing committee reports, and reports from task groups on a variety of topics including linked data, identity management, metadata application profiles, and engaging and broadening the PCC community. A summary of meeting outcomes, with links to the agenda and related discussion documents, has been posted at <www.loc.gov/aba/pcc/documents/PoCo-2019/PoCo-2019-Outcomes.pdf [PDF]>.
Regina Reynolds, with Diane Boehr of the National Library of Medicine, was invited to submit an article for a special issue of Cataloging & Classification Quarterly honoring the 25th anniversary of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging. Their article, “CONSER: the Very Model of a Modern Cooperative Program,” traces the influence of CONSER, the oldest PCC program, on the evolution of the Program for Cooperative Cataloging.
Children’s and Young Adults Cataloging (CYAC)
In fiscal 2019, the Literature Section in USPRLL completed 20,672 bibliographic records, the most of any section in the ABA Directorate.
Commonly Identified Titles for Compilations of Poetry Pilot
A proposal to conduct a pilot from the Literature Section was approved. Under the proposal, the Literature Section will follow RDA 126.96.36.199 by using the commonly identified titles for compilations of poetry by one agent. The pilot began on October 1, 2019, and will last six months.
New Literature Subject Headings and LC Classification Numbers
Include, among others: Web usage mining in journalism (class = PN4784.W43) ; Translating and interpreting in mass media ; Pirate television broadcasting ; Steampunk films (class= PN1995.9.S6954) ; Blog authorship ; Older women authors ; Geordie dialect ; Ludonarrative ; Future life in motion pictures ; Speculative fiction, American ; East Asians in motion pictures.
In fiscal 2019, the Children’s Literature and Young Adults’ Cataloging Program provided CIP data for 3,482 juvenile titles and applied CYAC subject headings and annotations to 3,579 titles. A new poster was developed, and program staff have continued to digitize their Decisions File. Having the Decisions File in electronic format will facilitate cataloging of children’s literature titles.
New CYAC Subject Headings included, among others: Animated Films; Catacombs; Catapult; Dog day care; Political persecution.
see under Cataloging Policy and Copperative Cataloging above
ISSN (International Standard Serial Number)
In fiscal 2019, the U.S. ISSN Center in USPRLL assigned a new record high of 6,341 ISSN (2,621 to online resources), and sent 239,067 new or updated records to the ISSN Register in Paris, France.
ISSN Directors Meeting
The 44th Meeting of Directors of ISSN National Centres [sic] and a meeting of the ISSN Review Group were held in New Delhi, India, November 11-16, 2019. Regina Reynolds, director of the U.S. ISSN Center [sic], participated in both meetings. Presentation topics included the inclusion in the new ISSN Portal of Keepers Registry data showing which preservation agencies (including LC) are maintaining specific serials; and Project Transfer data that indicates which journals are being transferred from one publisher to another. Plans for a new bibliographic database, “ISSN Plus,” were shared, as were presentations on the state of serial publishing in India. Reynolds also visited LC’s New Delhi Overseas Office where she presented “The Once and Future ISSN” to more than 30 office staff.
ProQuest Contract Renewal
The Library of Congress and ProQuest LLC have updated and renewed a cooperative agreement that was first signed with R.R. Bowker (now a ProQuest company) in 2000. The updated agreement continues the placement of a ProQuest employee in the U.S. ISSN Center to work part-time assigning ISSN to U.S. serials and other continuing resources, creating catalog records for the LC and ISSN International databases, adding information about these serials to ProQuest databases, and performing related activities. This public-private collaboration received the ALCTS (Association for Library Collections and Technical Services, an ALA division) Outstanding Collaboration Citation in 2015 as it “benefits publishers, vendors, librarians and researchers around the world.” The position had been vacant for several years. The ISSN Section welcomed the ProQuest employee in early October 2019.
Cooperative Agreement between the ISSN International Centre and the Library of Congress
After nearly a year of negotiation, both parties finalized the Cooperative Agreement between the ISSN International Centre and the Library of Congress. This document specifies the respective duties and obligations that pertain to the Library of Congress hosting the U.S. ISSN Center. This is the first time the agreement has been changed since 1974. Robin L. Dale, Associate Librarian for Library Services, signed the agreement on behalf of the Library in early December 2019.
Revision of ISO 3297, the ISSN Standard
On December 1, 2019, the national standards organizations members of ISO TC 46 (International Organization for Standardization Technical Committee 46) voted and endorsed the revised version of ISO 3297, which will be released in 2020. The revised standard incorporates more information about electronic works and includes additional definitions and specifications. Notably, the revised standard makes provisions for defining new kinds of “clusters” of ISSNs in addition to the existing cluster, the Linking ISSN (ISSN-L).
Development is progressing well on a system to provide a web-based application process and automated workflow for the U.S. ISSN Center. The system is being developed in-house on the ServiceNow platform. An application form that can output a draft MARC record is being tested and a workflow system has been modeled. The future system will include publisher registration, application forms tailored to different types of requesters, customizable boilerplate communications, reminders to publishers with “overdue” publications, and other efficiencies.
ISSN Governing Board
Karl Debus-López continues to serve on the ISSN Governing Board as the U.S. representative. Work continues on a new strategic plan to cover 2020-2024 for the ISSN International Centre and network. The Board has had several meetings where it has discussed a number of critical projects that could be addressed within the new strategic plan. The plan will be presented for a vote at the ISSN General Assembly meeting in Paris, France, in April 2020.
The Quarterly Legal Cataloging Forums hosted by the Law Section, USPRLL, continued to be successful in their third year. For the first time, presenters from external law school libraries (New York University and Harvard University) led high quality discussions via WebEx. The Law Section cataloged older legal resources and completed Phase I of the Law Library’s scholarly publications as special projects.
Network Development and MARC Standards Office
LC Linked Data Service (LDS) (id.loc.gov)
In a proof of concept application Linked data from ID was used to establish links from LC resources to Wikidata resources where many additional links reside. The application matched information from an LC Prints and Photographs Division digitized collection with information in Wikidata to establish links that illustrated the power of linked data to expand access to the collections. This proof of concept provided new discovery avenues to more than 60,000 prints and photographs.
LDS/ID was also heavily used by institutions for data on linked data enabled vocabularies, especially those needed for BIBFRAME and MARC, with average daily accesses numbering over 600,000.
Working with an international PREMIS Editorial Committee, NDMSO completed a project to update vocabularies used with PREMIS, making the PREMIS ontology version 3 and its 30 updated vocabularies now available in LDS/ID.
EDTF (Extended Date/Time Format)
Led by NDMSO staff, the revised EDTF standard was approved and published by ISO in two parts: ISO 8601:2019 Date and time -- Representations for information interchange -- Part 1: Basic rules, and Part 2: Extensions. The bibliographic community has long sought an extended time and date format (EDTF) and Part 2 provides the specifications.
MARC 21 formats
A MARC/RDA Working Group (see URL: www.loc.gov/marc/mac/MARC-RDA_Working_Group.html) was formed to identify any changes needed in the MARC format for the new version of RDA. Meeting virtually, the group developed two Discussion Papers for consideration at the ALA 2020 Midwinter Meeting. They involve RDA manifestation statements and RDA extension plans.
MARC Format Update 29 was published in November 2019. It included several items for better accessibility support. Two proposals and seven discussion papers were released for public vetting at ALA 2020 Midwinter Meeting.
Library of Congress Acquisitions and Cataloging Production
|Items purchased for LC collections||633,937||559,467||647,999|
|Items acquired for LC by non-purchase||1,172,351||1,470,000||1,472,501|
|Expenditures for collections purchases||$27,787,247.07||$22,700,000||$23,900,000|
|Bibliographic Records Completed||FY2019||FY2018||FY2017|
|Minimal level cataloging||24,194||25,222||75,976|
|Total records completed||271,052||293,135||372,207|
|Total volumes cataloged||386,853||305,955||389,040|
|New name authority records||82,004||88,411||72,991|
|New LC Subject Headings||7,259||2,221||2,664|
|New LC Classification Numbers||1,868||2,100||2,306|
|Total authority records created||91,131||92,732||76,927|
American Folklife Center/Veterans History Project (VHP)
see under Special Collections Directorate/American Folklife Center/Veterans History Project later in this document
LIBRARY SERVICES / Collection Development Office
Rashi Joshi was appointed to the position of Digital Collections Development Coordinator in the Collection Development Office, effective September 16, 2019. She is responsible for collection development related to digital materials such as web archives, datasets and bulk data.
The GENPAC and the LAW collections acquisitions appropriations are used to support the Library’s program to selectively purchase collections materials in all formats, physical and digital. In fiscal 2019, the combined appropriations total $18,728,789. For fiscal 2020, the combined appropriations total the same amount. Although this is considered a flat budget, rising costs to purchase and ship publications may actually reduce the purchasing power of the two appropriations.
Additional Service Copies
Fiscal 2019 was the fifth full year in which the Library’s one-copy policy for monographs (with some exceptions) was in place, with the following results from the project to remove existing additional copies from the collections:
- During the year, the Collections Management Division withdrew 26,491 total items from the collections. This freed 2,649 linear feet of shelf space in the Library's overcrowded book stacks.
- A continuing secondary objective of the program is to find a worthwhile use for the retrospective volumes that are withdrawn from the Library’s existing collections. To reach that goal, the Library has partnered with two nonprofit organizations, Books for Africa and Bridge to Asia. During the past year 43,191 books were transferred to Books for Africa, and 7,137 were transferred to Bridge to Asia. The total amount of books transferred from the Library to these partners during fiscal 2019 was 50,328.
The contract that supported the program – for withdrawing retrospective material - is not to be renewed in fiscal 2020. The large-scale removal of additional service copies will therefore not be continuing.
Collections Policy Statements Review Program
CDO continues its program to review and update on a cyclical basis all the Library’s Collections Policy Statements and associated Supplementary Guidelines. There are more than seventy such documents that guide the Library’s collecting program (see URL <www.loc.gov/acq/devpol/cpsstate.html>).
Four documents were recently reviewed, updated, and made available on the website. The revised statements are:
- Datasets Supplementary Guidelines
- Dissertations and Theses Collections Policy Statement
- Genealogy Collections Policy Statement
- Local History Collections Policy Statement
Digital Collecting Plan
The Library’s Digital Collecting Plan was completed in December 2016 and approved in January 2017. Implementation began immediately. With the program implementation well into its third year, a formal status check was conducted by CDO in August 2019. The summary status overall was:
Total number of targets/actions in plan = 74
30 Not started
4 In process
3 Preliminary work done; waiting on Copyright Office rulemaking
7 Targets/actions eliminated
Legislative Branch and Electronic Resources
CDO developed and had approved a project plan focused on improving access to electronic resources across the Legislative Branch. The phase one working group began in September 2019 with a goal to evaluate the possibility of sharing access to a selection of the Library’s purchased and leased electronic resources with Legislative Branch offices through collaborative licensing. An intra-agency agreement was reached with the Federal Research Division (FRD) for FRD to conduct the research required during the fact-finding phase of the project. That work is currently underway.
LIBRARY SERVICES / Digital Services Directorate
Digital Collections and Management and Services Division
On October 11, 2019, the Library launched the Digital Collections Management Compendium (DCMC). The DCMC is primarily a policy resource for staff at the Library of Congress, but the Library is also sharing it openly and publicly as a resource for colleagues at other institutions. As suggested in the Digital Strategy, we aim to model openness in our practices, to share expertise, and to “drive momentum in our [digital library] communities.”
The DCMC is a product of the Library’s Digital Collections and Management Services Division (DCMS), with the purpose of promoting enduring access to the Library’s vast digital collections. A core team in DCMS works with the Library’s collecting and policy units and departments that manage digital collections. Shaping the DCMC was guided by community best practices for digital preservation. Following the trustworthy digital repository standard (ISO 16363 ), DCMS surveyed the Library’s practices, workflows, and systems for handling digital objects. The development and implementation of the DCMC has filled many of the identified gaps in policy statements. Referencing the NDSA Levels of Digital Preservation [PDF}, DCMS analyzed whether each of the 36 points in the matrix have been addressed in policy and then, whether or not they have been addressed in procedure. With the inflow of digital content to the Library’s collections only increasing, the DCMC helps to solidify our policy and guidance for digital content management. Updating and keeping the Compendium current will be ongoing.
The DCMC also serves as a key resource for defining IT roles. It discusses the responsibility of collection managers, clarifies key IT business needs for systems that manage collections, and enables secure and enduring access to digital content in the Library’s permanent collection. It also facilitates the communication of necessary functional requirements between these groups.
Although guidance elements affect actions throughout the digital content lifecycle, the elements of the Compendium are organized into three main areas: Digital Formats, Inventory and Custody, and Access.
Integrated Library System Program Office (ILSPO)
LC Integrated Library System
On November 17, 2019, ILSPO staff successfully implemented Voyager 10.1.0 for all Voyager production databases and catalogs; the Library had been running on Voyager 8.2.0. The LC Online Catalog and some other services (e.g., Circulation and Automated Call Slip) were available to users during the week-long upgrade.
In fiscal 2019, users submitted 30,190,768 searches in the LC Online Catalog with 66,607,489 page views, and 9,208,993 searches in the LC Authorities Service.
As of September 30, 2019, the main LC Voyager database contained:
19,048, 607 bibliographic records;
21,815,290 holdings records;
27,100,057 item records; and
10,974,495 authority records.
Planning for the future
The Library has been conducting market research for a next generation library services platform to learn from vendors about technology trends and developments for library collection management products. Staff throughout the Library identified high-level business needs that have been compiled into a Request For Information (RFI), which the Library issued on October 24, 2019.
In the interim while conducting market research, ILSPO has stepped up its efforts to migrate legacy descriptive metadata into the ILS from silos. In fiscal 2019 the Program Office completed the migration of 70,000 bibliographic records from stand-alone databases to the LC ILS. Staff of ILSPO conducted many metadata remediation projects during the fiscal year that resulted in ILSPO staff adding or updating 295,579 bibliographic, holdings, and item records in the ILS.
Hiring Metadata Librarians
The ILS Program Office currently has 3 openings for metadata librarians. See the vacancy announcement at URL: <www.usajobs.gov/GetJob/ViewDetails/555405300>. The application period closes Jan. 31, 2020.
LCCN Permalink (lccn.loc.gov), a web service that allows users to create permanent URL links to bibliographic and authority records in the Library's Online Catalog (catalog.loc.gov) and the Library’s Handbook of Latin American Studies Catalog (URL hlasopac.loc.gov), enables researchers to reference materials from the Library's collection in blogs, reference guides, web pages, emails, bibliographies, and more. In 2019, the LCCN Permalink web service supported more than 449.6 million requests for bibliographic and authority metadata found in the LC Online Catalog, the LC Authorities Service, and the Handbook of Latin American Studies. That number includes more than 97.8 million LCCN Permalink requests for LC bibliographic records.
LC EAD (Encoded Archival Description) archival finding aids
In 2019, Special Collections Directorate divisions created 92 new EAD archival finding aids, bringing the total number of LC EAD finding aids to 2,585. Through the findingaids.loc.gov website, users can now access more than 70.9 million archival items in LC's collections. Eighty-five finding aids are also integrated with the Library’s digital collection presentations, including recent additions for the papers of suffragist Carrie Chapman Catt, Gen. George McClellan, and the Associated Press news dispatches. In 2020, the Library will move its backend EAD processing from EAD2002 to EAD3, with EAD3 XML and EAD3 METS documents available from the findingaids.loc.gov search site.
LC persistent identifiers
The Library uses handle server technology to assign persistent identifiers and manage LC’s born-digital content. LC staff registered 117,332 handles in 2019. As of early January 2020, the Library’s handle server contained 4,161,304 handles. Library staff assigned handles to: born digital resources stored in the Library’s digital repository; materials digitized by the Library and its partners; and digital books created by the National Library Service for the Blind and Print Disabled.
In 2019, nearly 5.4 million requests were processed by LC’s handle server.
Electronic Resource Management System (ERMS)
The Library’s Electronic Resource Management System provides access to electronic journals, e-books and databases from 1,818 resource collections. The Library maintained metadata for 1,613,654 titles and updated journal coverage entries, typically loading approximately 2 million coverage records monthly.
In 2019, the ILS Program Office completed the successful migration of the ERMS to a Linux/VM platform running Millennium 2014 Service Pack 5.
LIBRARY SERVICES / General and International Collections Directorate
Donna Brearcliffe was promoted to special assistant to the Director for General and International Collections.
Teresa (Teri) Sierra, chief of the Serial and Government Publications Division, retired from the Library effective January 3, 2020. Deb Thomas, program manager for the National Digital Newspaper Program, serves as acting chief.
Kimberley Bugg, chief of the Researcher and Reference Services Division, resigned from the Library effective January 6, 2020. The Library anticipates posting to fill the vacant position within several months.
African and Middle East Division
AMED has launched the following major web archives as important research resources since ALA 2019 Annual Conference. As more sites are to be added, all three are ongoing archives:
- African Government Web Archive (2014 to present)provides information from key African government ministries, institutions and organizations for the 51 countries in Africa south of the Sahara. Government ministries’ websites concerned with commerce, economic development, social welfare, and foreign affairs, were particularly targeted for archiving. Through a variety of formats--PDF, videos, and social media--these sites offer primary source materials such as annual reports, development plans, economic reports, budgets, statistics and foreign affairs. Collection material is in Amharic, Arabic, English, French, Portuguese and Swahili.
- Afghanistan, Iran and Pakistan Web Archive (2015 to present) is a collection of official government websites, focusing on the political, economic, administrative and social situation in these countries. Several of these governmental websites contain information in English, Urdu, Persian (Farsi and Dari dialects) and Pashto languages.
- Middle East/North Africa Government Institutions Web Archive (2014 to present) covers governmental websites of Bahrain, Mauritania, Qatar, Turkey and Yemen. Especially valuable information is to be found in the sites of national financial ministries and banks as they demonstrate transparency and the conditions in the country/region during a time of global economic change, and, in some cases, while embroiled in conflict. Collection material is in Arabic, English, French, and Turkish.
October 2019 saw the addition of 17 new Persian manuscripts and items to the Persian Language Rare Materials collection at URL: <www.loc.gov/collections/persian-language-rare-materials/about-this-collection>. The added content covers various works on medicine; the sciences that range from poisons, antidotes, and astronomy to pediatrics; classics of Persian poetry such as the mystical poetry of Hafiz; and religious works on the Islamic saints and sermons as well as an interlinear Qur’an in Arabic with Persian explanation.
HACU HNIP intern
From September to December 2019, the African and Middle Eastern Division recruited a HACU (Hispanic American Colleges and Universities) HNIP (Hispanic National Internship Program) intern, Guadalupe Rojas, to assist the African and Hebraic sections in a number of projects. For the African Section, the intern assisted in creating a finding aid for the African reference collection located in the AMED Reading Room. For the Hebraic Section, she used the existing finding aids to facilitate the creation of cataloging records for four highly prized collections of close to 1,000 Hebraic manuscripts and rare books going back as far as the 14th century. This project was in collaboration with the ILS Program Office, Digital Collections Management and Services Division, and the Israel and Judaica (I/J) Section of ABA’s Asian and Middle Eastern Division. These newly generated records will provide needed metadata for the digitization of the collections.
Researcher and Reference Services Division (RRS)
The Researcher and Reference Services Division produced 56 LibGuides as a way to make the Library’s rich and expansive collection more portable and adaptable for the increasing number of users interested in accessing the collections. All of the LibGuides are found on the Library’s website at URL: <guides.loc.gov> and cover a wide range of topics.
The Division served 142,532 items to library patrons in the reading room and responded to 51,267 reference inquiries in fiscal 2019.
The Division also oversaw the gift acquisition of the HistoryMakers Digital Archive. This database includes 2,691 interviews containing more than 10,000 hours of primary source video content of Africans Americans from a broad range of backgrounds and experiences, now accessible onsite at the Library.
Serial and Government Publications Division (SER)
The Serial and Government Publications Division (SER) performs a wide range of collection development, collection description, collection preservation, and reference service activities for its temporary and permanent collections. SER’s permanent collections include newspapers, comic books, pulp magazines, and several government document collections. The newspaper collection includes many original print holdings of commemorative and anniversary editions, and first printings of significant U.S. documents. The comic book collection includes more than 12,000 titles and more than 150,000 issues. The Division is the official repository of archival sets of U.S. Federal Advisory Committee (FAC) documents. SER also houses reproducible master copies of U.S. Federal Depository Library Program (FDLP) documents distributed on microfiche. SER holds the complete United Nations working document set in multiple formats. SER is also the custodial stakeholder for digitized newspapers acquired through the National Digital Newspaper Program, now more than 16 million pages from more than 3,000 titles. The current periodical collection includes more than 49,000 domestic and foreign titles, including government serials, and nearly 1.2 million loose issues that reside temporarily in the Division prior to binding or microfilming and transfer to the Library’s general collection.
The division accomplished a major shift in its collection acquisitions of currently published U.S. newspapers. In March 2018, the U.S. Copyright Office began requiring deposit of digital facsimiles in place of microfilm for print newspapers registered for copyright protection using the Group Registration of Newspapers option, a registration process whereby newspaper publishers are able to register copyright for one month of newspaper issues at one time under a single registration and at reduced cost per issue. See final Notice of Rulemaking in U.S. Federal Register at <https://www.govinfo.gov/content/pkg/FR-2018-01-30/pdf/2018-01838.pdf>. These digital deposits, referred to as e-prints, must be submitted in issue-level PDF format and include searchable text, among other technical requirements as described in the rule. As of Sept. 30, 2019, thirty-eight titles had been added to the collections, depositing 12,085 issue-level PDFs. The Library will provide public access to these collections, per regulatory restrictions, to two authorized users on LC premises at any one time. Publishers could continue to deposit microfilm, in addition to the required e-prints, until December 2019. In addition, in the near future, the Library will accept similar newspaper e-prints in fulfillment of mandatory deposit obligations (under special relief agreement) for publishers who no longer produce microfilm.
In fiscal 2019, SER reference staff handled 82,855 reference inquiries, compared to 73,430 the previous year. In addition, 65,414 items were circulated from the collections.
Recommending officers in the Division continued participating in the Library’s web archiving efforts. They curated three new Web Archives collections that went live in December 2019:
- Comics Literature and Criticism
- Federal Advisory Committee Web Archive
- Executive Branch Federal Government Web Archive
- On January 16, 2020, the Library added the newly digitized Frederick Douglass Newspapers, 1847-1874
National Digital Newspaper Program/Chronicling America
The National Digital Newspaper Program, jointly sponsored by the Library of Congress (LC) and the National Endowment for the Humanities (NEH) continues to build and provide free public access to a national collection of historical American newspapers. Applying digital technologies for enhancing and sustaining access to this important primary source of American history, the program will, over the long-term, fund digitization of historic newspapers in all U.S. states and territories. Participants in the program select newspapers from their state’s collections to digitize and contribute to the Library of Congress’ Chronicling America website, https://chroniclingamerica.loc.gov/. Currently, 47 states and territories and LC have contributed more than 16 million pages from more than 3,000 titles published between 1789 and 1963, including ethnic news press from across the country in 18 languages. In August 2019, NEH announced awards to three new participants from Rhode Island, the U.S. Virgin Islands, and Wyoming. New content is added to the site as it is accepted into the collection.
The Library of Congress contributes digitized historic newspapers from its own collections representing the District of Columbia and other nationally important historic titles. In fiscal 2020, in addition to the digitization and processing of the Frederick Douglass newspapers, the Library will complete digitization of the Miscellaneous Negro Newspapers Collection, 1822-1900, and will continue digitization of the Evening Star, 1953-1963. The Library of Congress does not receive an award per se from NEH, but NEH contributes annually through interagency transfer of funds to the Library’s development costs associated with acquisition and preservation of the data.
Chronicling America also provides a general interest email and RSS feed, notifying subscribers of interesting NDNP program news and featured highlights and Topic in Chronicling America guides. Interested members of the library community and the public may subscribe at https://www.loc.gov/subscribe/#newspapers. Twitter users can follow @librarycongress, using #ChronAm to discover highlights of the collection.
SER continued producing its series of research pages called Topics in Chronicling America, commonly called Topics Pages, designed to aid users of the NDNP’s Chronicling America (http://www.loc.gov/rr/news/topics/).These are being migrated to the Library’s LibGuides site, with 30 Topics Guides migrated by January 2020 <guides.loc.gov/newspaper-periodical>.
The National Digital Newspaper Program harvested WorldCat bibliographic records twice in fiscal 2019 to update the Chronicling America U.S. Newspaper Directory of digitized newspapers. These bibliographic records are harvested through the WorldCat open Application Programming Interface (API) and provide key metadata for the digitized newspaper pages in Chronicling America. The directory also supports access to newspapers not available in digital form through bibliographic information for 155,000 American newspapers published from 1690 to the present and associated library holdings, products of the United States Newspaper Program, a previous collaboration between NEH and LC.
The NDNP team continues to work closely with the Office of the Chief Information Officer on migration of the Chronicling America collection into the Library’s other digital collections in the Project One online presentations environment. Software development for major feature enhancements to support online search and browse of this digital collection have been completed, and infrastructure upgrades are underway that will further support the expanded full-text search requirements. The Project One loc.gov collections interface to Chronicling America is expected for release in early 2020.
LIBRARY SERVICES / Preservation Directorate
The Preservation Directorate (PRES) at the Library of Congress supports the agency’s mission to provide a “universal and enduring collection” by caring for the Library’s diverse types of holdings to ensure they are available to users now and in the future. PRES accomplishes this through conservation, binding, mass deacidification, reformatting, materials testing, storage management and inventory control, and staff and user education. The Directorate plays a central role in coordination and oversight of Library-wide activities relating to the preservation and physical protection of the collections.
Jeanne Drewes, chief of the Binding and Collections Care Division, retired October 11, 2019. Adrija Henley serves as acting chief in addition to her permanent position as chief of the Preservation Reformatting Division.
Preservation at ALA 2220 Midwinter
Jacob Nadal, Director for Preservation, will be available at the Library Exhibit Booth on Saturday, 9:00-11:00 AM, to talk about the Library’s preservation efforts and hear about local and national preservation concerns. Of special interest this year are projects to support cooperative print archives through assessment of the condition of library collections nation-wide, and US Government efforts to preserve and protect cultural heritage domestically and internationally.
The Preservation website (URL <www.loc.gov/preservation>) is the Library’s main portal into its many collections preservation activities and includes sections for a variety of physical collections as well as preservation information for digital content (URL <www.loc.gov/preservation/digital>).
The Library of Congress has an active program of internships, fellowships, and training opportunities in preservation to support individuals at many points in their professional and academic careers. Over the past year, Preservation hosted 21 interns and fellows for a variety of projects and educational programs. Information about our internships and fellowships is posted online, and you may email firstname.lastname@example.org to inquire about them. (URL: <www.loc.gov/preservation/outreach/intern/>).
Listings of publications by preservation staff are available online at URL <www.loc.gov/preservation/resources/staffpubs>.
Select Highlights from the Preservation Directorate
In celebration of Preservation Week, April 26-May 2, 2020, the Library will offer tours of the Preservation laboratories and host an information session on the @librarycongress Twitter channel. As in past years, presentations on preservation topics will be selected for a webcast. Suggestions are welcome at email@example.com.
Preservation staff participated in the 2019 IFLA World Library and Information Congress, in Athens, Greece, August 24-30. The Library of Congress renewed its agreement to serve as the IFLA PAC (Strategic Programme on Preservation and Conservation) Centre for North America. (URL: <www.ifla.org/pac >).
The Conservation Division made available online the Digital Imaging Workflow for Treatment Documentation (iDoc). (URL: <www.loc.gov/preservation/resources/ImageDoc>) The manual is a step-by-step guide used by staff with a wide range of digital image documentation skill levels and experience. The workflow described is specific to the setup and equipment in the Conservation Division, but the procedures are intended to be adaptable for use in other conservation imaging studios. iDoc follows the principles in The AIC (American Institute for Conservation) Guide to Digital Photography and Conservation Documentation and abides by the AIC Code of Ethics and Guidelines for Practice.
The Binding and Collections Care Division posted several updates to the collections care manual, available in PDF from the Directorate website. (URL: <www.loc.gov/preservation/care/ccs_manual.html>).
The Library continues work on a project funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation to evaluate the overall condition of collections in American libraries to support decision making for shared preservation efforts. This will entail comparison of approximately 500 bibliographically identical books from libraries in a variety of regions across the U.S. The project will develop more reliable methods of evaluating preservation needs along with overall risk factors in national collections metadata.
The Director for Preservation continues to represent the Library in national shared print and cooperative print archiving initiatives. These include the Partnership for Shared Book Collections and the HathiTrust Shared Print Advisory Committee.
Congress encouraged the Library to “increase … associations with post-secondary institutions that have significant percentages of minority students” (H. Rept. 115-199, 115-696). This aligns with calls from ALA and other professional associations to attend to diversity issues in cultural heritage. The Preservation Directorate continues its internship program with the Historic Black Colleges and Universities Library Alliance for a second year, in addition to its ongoing partnerships with the American Chemical Society SEED program and the Hispanic American Colleges and University National Internship Program (HNIP). The 2019 HBCU intern digitized two volumes of The Negro travelers’ Green-book as part of a research project on this publication. These were not previously available on-line:
- The 1942 Edition. LCCN: 2016298176: https://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gdc/gdcscd.00212275098
- The 1958 “Airline Edition.” LCCN: 53030287: https://hdl.loc.gov/loc.gdc/gdcscd.00104592867
Preservation represents the Library on the Cultural Heritage Coordinating Committee (Public Law 114–151) to coordinate U.S. government efforts “to protect and preserve international cultural property at risk from political instability, armed conflict, or natural or other disasters.” (See URL: <eca.state.gov/cultural-heritage-center/cultural-heritage-coordinating-committee>). CHCC commissioned a new Preservation Working Group to focus on international preservation activities across government. This may include technical assistance and training; guidance for working with foreign governments and for engaging in foreign disaster management activities; and U.S. government engagement in preservation education. The Working Group coordinated U.S. government response to disasters in the Bahamas (hurricane) and Albania (earthquake).
Preservation staff continue their work with the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and Heritage Emergency National Task Force (HENTF). Directorate staff supported HENTF response efforts in Puerto Rico and worked with ALA offices to provide information for libraries affected by weather-related emergencies nationwide. (URL: <culturalrescue.si.edu/hentf >).
Library conservators completed the treatment of the Omar ibn Said manuscript and 41associated documents. The 1831 manuscript is the only known extant autobiography written in Arabic by an enslaved person in the U.S. The conservators were involved in various outreach activities associated with the end of the project. Finally, the PCS conservator wrote a guest blog for LC summarizing the treatment (URL: <blogs.loc.gov/loc/2019/02/omar-ibn-said-conserving-a-one-of-a-kind-manuscript>).
LIBRARY SERVICES / Special Collections Formats Directorate
Mary Russell was appointed special assistant to the director for special collections, effective August 8, 2019. Gene Berry, formerly special assistant to the director, retired from the Library on December 31, 2019.
Janice Ruth was appointed chief of the Manuscript Division, effective December 4, 2019. She had served as assistant chief or acting chief since 2009.
Vin Novara was appointed head of the Acquisitions and Processing Section, Music Division, effective January 5, 2020.
American Folklife Center/Veterans History Project
The Veterans History Project meets its congressional mandate to collect, preserve and make accessible the personal stories of America’s veterans. In fiscal 2019 the Project has been particularly proud of exciting collaborations with the National Library for the Blind and Print Disabled, which resulted in workshops with Talking Book network librarians, and accessible braille and audio-described VHP materials. In November 2019, the Project launched 20th anniversary commemorations which will continue through November 2020. Congressional offices, libraries, educational institutions, organizations and individual volunteers across the country continue to help gather and submit oral histories and materials documenting first person experience for VHP. The Project’s Facebook page, “Folklife Today Veterans History Project” blog, RSS feed, and website, www.loc.gov/vets, which continues to host four online curated exhibits per year, now totaling 67 “episodes,” all share rich content exploring the individual accounts of veterans’ experience.
Particularly remarkable in 2019 was the publication of the first VHP-created Story Map, “D-Day Journeys: Personal geographies of D-Day veterans, 75 years later.” Working closely with the Geography & Map Division, and pairing items from the Prints & Photographs Division, this stunning use of the platform is a truly interactive online experience, with combined text, images, and video content. It provides an immersive user experience facilitating map-based discovery through geographic information system (GIS) technology. An almost real-time unfurling of veterans’ viewpoints, VHP’s Story Map was featured by CBS News, and chosen by Esri (publisher of the application) as “Story Map of the Month.”
Since the 2016 enactment of the Gold Star Family Voices Act, a total of 115 interviews of Gold Star family members have been added to the Project. Nearly half of those have been received since March 2019 through a significant milestone: the largest to-date donation from a Gold Star Family-focused organization, Gold Star Dirt. In September 2019, VHP hosted a Gold Star Families Collections Display Day which showcased collections from Prints & Photographs, Music, and Manuscript divisions as well as VHP. Attendees from Alaska and Arizona to Tennessee and Maryland remarked on how seeing the collections gave them a discovered sense of a powerful connection to the Library.
Events like the Display Day also showcase the VHP Information Center in the Library’s Thomas Jefferson Building, which provides more convenient access to veterans, visitors and Members of Congress and enables expanded outreach activities such as workshops, briefings and video teleconferences, which can even occur simultaneously. Additionally, the two converted alcoves overlooking the Main Reading Room have enabled more than 80 onsite VHP interviews of local and traveling visitors.
The Veterans History Project encourages all organizations and groups, especially libraries, to continue to play a pivotal role in VHP’s success by hosting our free workshops either online or in person, distributing information, coordinating interviewing events and making their facilities available to local VHP volunteers. For additional information, see the project Web site, <www.loc.gov/vets>, email firstname.lastname@example.org, or call 202-707-4916.
Geography and Map Division
In fiscal 2019, G&M recorded 15,769 cartographic items processed; 14,386 maps, 728 atlases, 378 computer data files containing more than 6,000 maps, and 277 digital format files. The G&M staff produced 9,421 digital master files and 7,084 bibliographic records.
In fiscal 2019, G&M developed an “LC Selects” Maps Approval Plan, to be implemented on October 1, 2019, to purchase foreign produced cartographic data. This new Approval Plan contracts with two wholesale cartographic data vendors to purchase geospatial data from countries around the globe. G&M, working with the Library’s six overseas offices and these two vendors of worldwide cartographic data, anticipates procuring primarily large-scale topographic and thematic government-produced mapping and digital data on a continuing broad basis.
Outreach and User Experiences
In November 2019, the Geography and Map Division hosted a successful one-day conference for GIS Day entitled “In the Shadows of Notre Dame: Geographic Information Science, 3D Mapping and Cultural Heritage Preservation.” Division chief Paulette Hasier opened the meeting, and GIS Cartographic Specialist John Hessler was among the speakers. (See https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4hZLyThf0KQ ).
Since March 2018, G&M has published nine online interactive applications that highlight creative ways to facilitate the accessibility of thousands of collections, using the Geographic Information Systems (GIS)-based tool Story Maps (loc.gov/storymaps). These digital humanities stories have garnered over 229,000 views.
In addition, the G&M Division’s cataloging staff created an internal “Story Map” of Cartographic Resources in The Library of Congress. Combining text, images, multimedia, and interactive maps and online narrative experiences, this Story Map surveys the geographic distribution of different types of cartographic resources by country (sheet maps, set maps, atlases, globes, electronic resources and so on) located in the Geography and Map Division.
The G&M Division cataloging team serves as a liaison between LC and map librarians at large. The G&M staff are faced with the challenging task of capturing large amounts of geospatial metadata, including attributes tied to various types of GIS data, vector and raster, across heterogeneous file formats. G&M established the Workflow for Creating Standardized Metadata in Geospatial Hosting Environment (GHE) for the National Cartographic Collection. This workflow will guide the use of processing digital acquisitions, analyzing data, and creating metadata in MARC format. Staff implemented crosswalks from the FGDC/ISO (Federal Geographic Data Committee/International Organization for Standardization) standard for geospatial data to MARC to provide for metadata records needs.
The Music Division has completed the processing and finding aid for the 17,700-item collection of jazz pianist, composer and arranger Billy Strayhorn (1915-1967). Staff conducted a public, taped interview with family members and colleagues, produced a press release, blog and promotional video with Librarian of Congress Dr. Carla Hayden, and, following a timely NPR mention, immediately began serving the collection to scholars.
The Division established a team to identify and report rare and important holdings to RISM (Répertoire International des Sources Musicales). To date, we have reported approximately 300 early imprints and identified approximately 260 additional items that do not yet have entries in the RISM database. Staff in the Music Division also discovered more than 70 items that had neither Voyager nor RISM records, meaning they were totally unknown; in some cases, the Library was the only known repository.
The Division presented a series of events, including panel discussions, talks, displays, and performances, focusing on the history and preservation of video game music. This culminated in a day-long arcade in the Thomas Jefferson Building’s Mahogany Row and Room LM119 of playable vintage videogames (ca. 3,000 participants), and a performance of a commission of an interactive composition for a newly created video game. The multigenerational appeal of these unique events brought in new audiences of all ages.
The Division’s Digital Projects Team brought online three new digital presentations:
- Women’s Suffrage in Sheet Music
- Books about Music before 1800 (approx. 2,000 items)
- 10th-16th Century Liturgical Chants
In addition, the team successfully updated and migrated the Federal Theatre Project from American Memory to the Library’s Project One online presentation environment, adding more than 5,500 items.
NATIONAL LIBRARY SERVICE FOR THE BLIND AND PRINT DISABLED (NLS)
In May 2019, NLS received final approval from the Librarian of Congress to change its name. The new name, “National Library Service for the Blind and Print Disabled,” became official on October 1, 2019. With the new name, which was selected after considering input from stakeholder groups and comments gathered through various public channels, the Library and NLS leadership intended to address the use of outdated language in the old name, National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped, and communicate more clearly the breadth of those served by NLS. The short acronym “NLS” has not changed.
Along with the name change, NLS also rolled out a new logo that is in keeping with the graphic identity the Library of Congress implemented in late 2018.
Braille eReader development and pilot
In late 2019, NLS issued contracts to two technology companies, Humanware and Zoomax, to create prototypes of refreshable braille displays. This was a major step in moving NLS closer to its goal of developing an affordable refreshable braille display, or eReader, that would be available for loan to patrons. A pilot planned for spring 2020 will test the functionality of both devices, collect feedback from pilot patrons, and validate distribution processes at NLS’s network libraries. These devices will enable individuals with Internet access to immediately download braille titles, making it easy to read braille content anywhere.
OFFICE OF THE CHIEF INFORMATION OFFICER (OCIO)
Digital Strategy Directorate/LC Labs
3D at LOC
The core purpose of the 3D Digital Modeling, Imaging, and Printing Working Group, chaired by Educational Resource Specialist Stephen Wesson of the Learning and Innovation Office, is to explore the use of 3D technologies to expand access to the Library’s collections. In autumn 2019, the working group launched a pilot in which a limited selection of items from the online collections were 3D scanned using photogrammetry, a process that combines photography and the use of software to create digital, web-viewable 3D models. The resulting 3D models of a bronze casting of President Abraham Lincoln’s hand and of a manuscript from the 12th century Exposicio mistica are now publicly available as the LOC 3D experiment on labs.loc.gov. In addition to viewing the 3D models online, users will be able to download STL files, which can then be used to create 3D prints of objects for use in classroom settings.
The Library of Congress is grateful for the collaboration of two leading cultural heritage organizations in this project. From the Smithsonian Institution’s Digitization Program Office , developer Ki Lee and user experience designer Jamie Bresner helped the LC Labs team to implement the Smithsonian “Voyager,” an open-source web viewer created by the Smithsonian team to showcase their 3D models online. Cultural Heritage Imaging, headquartered in San Francisco, Calif., sent trainers to the Library for a week to train 13 staff members drawn from all service units in photogrammetry. Two Smithsonian 3D specialists, Meg Dattoria and Anaís Perez, joined the week-long training in photogrammetry to offer their experience and expertise as Library of Congress staff acquired new skills in photogrammetry.
Please try out these models, incorporate them into your work and/or use them creatively in ways that the working group hasn’t considered! Comments are welcome at LC-Labs@loc.gov.
Computing Cultural Heritage in the Cloud
The Library’s primary digital strategy group, LC Labs, has obtained a Mellon Foundation grant of $1 million to fund “Computing Cultural Heritage in the Cloud,” a project to explore and analyze digital scholarship at LC—or rather, scholarship using LC digital resources. The impetus for the project came, in part, from the insights of Kluge Scholars, visiting researchers who are invited to spend up to a year at the Library’s John W. Kluge Center to use our analog and digital collections in their research. The project will have four research experts working with very large data sets for nine months each, under observation by LC Labs staff. After the nine-month research period from May 2020 through concludes this year, LC Labs will take most of 2021 to analyze how the research experts used and interacted with LC’s digital content. The project manager is Laurie Allen, who came to LC from the University of Pennsylvania. A three-year, grant-funded professional position to provide digital research support for the selected researchers has also been posted; see URL <www.loc.gov/item/careers/innovation-specialist-vacancyvar001070/>. The application period closes Jan. 31, 2020.