DATE: May 5, 1995

NAME: Encoding of Digital Maps in the USMARC Bibliographic Format

SOURCE: Library of Congress and University of California, Santa Barbara

SUMMARY: This proposal calls for adding guidelines for the treatment of digital maps in the USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data following Format Integration. It suggests renaming the Leader byte 06 value "e" and the definition of an additional code in the field 008 (Fixed-Length Data Elements) for cartographic materials to accommodate digital maps which, until Format Integration, were treated as computer files.

KEYWORDS: Leader/06; Digital maps; 008/25 (Maps); Type of cartographic material; Type of record

RELATED: 94-7 (Feb. 1994)


5/5/95 - Forwarded to USMARC Advisory Group for discussion at the June 1995 MARBI meetings.

6/25/95 - Results of USMARC Advisory Group discussion - Approved in part.

The change to Leader/06 was approved (change printed map to cartographic material). To be consistent, manuscript map will be changed to manuscript cartographic material. This would give the cataloger an option as to how to handle digital material. The 008/25 addition of a code for digital was rejected, because it was felt that the information could be conveyed in 006 or 007. The Group requested a discussion paper on the broader issue of content vs. carrier in the USMARC bibliographic format.

7/26/95 - Results of final LC review - Agreed with the MARBI decision.

PROPOSAL NO. 95-9: Encoding of Digital Maps


     With the implementation of Format Integration, it becomes
possible to accommodate all forms of cartographic materials in
the Maps format, coded as record type "e" (now defined as printed
map), or "f" for manuscript items.  The first step toward this
occured with the approval of Proposal No. 94-7 (Encoding of
Atlases in the USMARC Bibliographic Format), which changed the
coding of atlases from record type "a" in Leader/06 (Type of
record) to type "e" (Printed map) or "f" (Manuscript map).  With
the changes in technology in the field of cartography and
increasing trend to distribute cartographic products in digital
form, as well as the availability of cartographic datasets on the
Internet, a method for handling digital maps needs to be included
in the USMARC Bibliographic Format.  The University of California
at Santa Barbara is creating records for digital maps as part of
a Digital Library Project grant funded by the National Science
Foundation and wants to code them as maps records.  In addition,
the Federal Geographic Data Committee's Content Standards for
Geospatial Metadata has been mandated for documenting geospatial


        Like most librarians who deal primarily with one type of
information, map librarians as well as map users want all
cartographic materials, no matter what the physical form or
carrier, to be retrievable as a "map."  In all cases a map
librarian or user would feel that the content or information type
(cartographic) is always primary and the physical format is
secondary.  The fact that the publishing media is a CD, a book, a
piece of paper, a microform, or a set of computer disks is
secondary in importance to a user.

        Many institutions, including the Library of Congress, are
beginning to create digital images of some of the paper maps in
their collections.  In most cases these digital images will not
be separately cataloged, due to economic considerations, but the
bibliographic record for the paper copy will be modified to
contain the pertinent information about how to locate the digital
image.  If cartographic items which originate in a digital
version are not treated in a compatible manner, the access to
this material could become very murky indeed.  For example, a
digital image of a paper map could be downloaded and data added
to it, making it a new cartographic item that originated as a
digital file.  Without a method for handling such items as maps,
much of the cartographic information will be lost if the item
were described as a computer file.

        Additionally, handling a CD containing cartographic
information in a digital form as a computer file would be
inconsistent with handling a CD containing music in a digital
form as recorded sound.  The type of information, cartographic or
music, should be the primary focus rather than the medium or
container.  The approach in AACR2 is problematic, based on
concepts of originals and reproductions than on content and
carriers.  This problem is being brought to the attention of the
Joint Steering Committee for further clarification.

Impact on existing records.  Modifications that would be required
in existing records for digital cartographic items to reorient
them as cartographic would be:

        a)      Change of Leader/06 from code "m" (Computer file) to
                code "e" or "f"

        b)      New coding for field 008 character positions 18-24,
                29-30, and 33-34 to correspond with the changed coding
                in Leader/06.  These positions could also be set to the
                fill character ( | ).

        This proposal does not suggest any REQUIREMENTS for dealing
with existing USMARC records for digital cartographic materials. 
Institutions should consider, however, what their policy might be
regarding existing records, if this proposal is approved.  The
Library of Congress computer files file contains the
approximately 25 records for digital cartographic items.  The
records contain a record type "m" in Leader/06 and 008 for
computer file.  LC would change these records to be oriented to
their cartographic character.


        The following is presented for consideration:

         -      Rename Leader byte 06 value "e" from Printed map to
                Cartographic material.
                        Code "e" indicates that the content of the record
                        is for cartographic material.
                See Attachment A for a description of the field if this
                proposal is approved.

         -      In field 008/25 (Type of cartographic material) and
                field 006/08 define the following code:
                        g (Digital)
                See Attachment B for a description of the field if this
                proposal is approved.

                                              ATTACHMENT A


Indicators and Subfield Codes

    The Leader has no indicators or subfield codes; the data
    elements are positionally defined.

                                                                                    Validity by
Material Type
Character Positions

    00-04        Logical record length

    05       Record status
                 a            Increase in encoding level
                 c            Corrected or revised
                 d            Deleted
                 n            New                 
                 p            Increase in encoding level from prepublication

    06       Type of record
                 a            Printed language material
                 c            Printed music
                 d            Manuscript music             
                 e            [Printed map] 
                 f            Manuscript map
                 g            Projected medium
                 i            Nonmusical sound recording
                 j            Musical sound recording
                 k            Two-dimensional nonprojectable graphic
                 m            Computer file
                 o            Kit
                 p            Mixed material
                 r            Three-dimensional artifact or
                                 naturally occurring object
                 t            Manuscript language material

    07       Bibliographic level
                 a            Monographic component part                     
                 b            Serial component part
                 c            Collection
                 d            Subunit
                 m            Monograph/item               
                 s            Serial              

    08       Type of control                      
                 #            No specified type of control
                 a            Archival control             
Leader--p. 6
         e - [Printed map]
             Code e indicates that the content of the record is for
             [a printed map or a microform of a printed map]
             .  This code is also used for
             atlases, globes,  and other [printed]
             cartographic items.

         f - Manuscript map
             Code f indicates that the content of the record is for a
             manuscript map or a microform of a manuscript map.

         g - Projected medium
             Code g indicates that the content of the record is for a
             motion picture, videorecording, filmstrip, slide, or
             transparency.  All of these media are intended for
             projection.   Material specifically designed for
             overhead projection is also included in this type of
             record category.

         i - Nonmusical sound recording
             Code i indicates that the content of the record is for a
             recording of nonmusical sounds (e.g., speech).

         j - Musical sound recording
             Code j indicates that the content of the record is for a
             musical sound recording.

         k - Two-dimensional nonprojectable graphic
             Code k indicates that the content of the record is for a
             two-dimensional nonprojectable graphic such as, activity
             cards, charts, collages, computer graphics, drawings,
             duplication masters, flash cards, paintings,
             photonegatives, photoprints, pictures, postcards,
             posters, prints, spirit masters, study prints, technical
             drawings, transparency masters, and reproductions of any
             of these.

         m - Computer file
             Code m indicates that the content of the record is for a
             body of information encoded in a manner which allows it
             to be processed by a computer.  The information in the
             computer file may be numeric or textual data, computer
             software, or a combination of these types.  Although a
             file may be stored on a variety of media (such as
             magnetic tape or disk, punched cards, or optical
             character recognition font documents), the file itself
             is independent of the medium on which it is stored. 

         o - Kit
             Code o indicates that the content of the record is for a
             mixture of components from two or more of the Type of
             record categories defined for Leader/06, no one of which
             is identifiable as the predominant component of the
             item.  This category includes the packages of material
             called laboratory kits, and packages of assorted
             materials, such as a set of K-12 social studies
             curriculum material (books, workbooks, guides,
             activities, etc.), or packages of educational test
             materials (tests, answer sheets, scoring guides, score
             charts, interpretative manuals, etc.).

         p - Mixed materials
             Code p indicates a collection of items in which no one
             form of material is emphasized or predominates.

                                              ATTACHMENT B

008/25   Type of cartographic material


    a      Single map
    b      Map series
    c      Map serial
    d      Globe
    e      Atlas


       A one-character alphabetic code indicates the type of
cartographic item being described.



a - Single map
    Code a indicates that the record describes a single map.

       008/25                 a
       300       ##$a1 map :$bcol. ;$c10 x 40 cm.

b - Map series
    Code b indicates that the record describes a series of maps. 
    A map series is a number of related but physically separate
    and bibliographically distinct cartographic units intended by
    the producer(s) or issuing body(s) to form a single group. 
    This code is not for atlas series.

       008/25                 b
       300       ##$a50 maps :$b2 col. ;$c40 x 25 cm.

c - Map serial
    Code c indicates that the record describes a map serial.  A
    map serial is a publication issued in successive parts bearing
    numerical or chronological designations and intended to be
    continued indefinitely.  For serially issued atlases, code e
    (Atlas) is used.

       008/25                 c
       300       ##$a   maps :$bcol. ;$c20 x 60 cm., on sheets 25 x 65
               [Three spaces in subfield #a given for an incomplete
       315       ##$aQuarterly.

d - Globe
    Code d indicates that the record describes a globe.

       008/25                 d
e - Atlas
    Code e indicates that the record describes an atlas, including
    atlas series, and serially issued atlases.

       008/25                 e
       300       ##$a1 atlas (288 p.) :$bchiefly col. maps ;$c38 cm.

g -    Digital
       Code g indicates that the record describes cartographic
       material which originated in digital form. 


Prior to the definition of code e (Atlas) in 1995, atlases were
treated as printed language material.  The field 008
configuration for books was used.

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