NAME: Definition of Second Indicator (Relationship to Source) in Field 856 (Electronic Location and Access) in the USMARC Formats
SOURCE: Cooperative Online Serials Program (CONSER)
SUMMARY: This proposal suggests the definition of a second indicator in field 856 to characterize the relationship between the entity for which field 856 provides electronic location information and the entity described in the bibliographic record. Three values are proposed: value # (No information provided); value 0 (Electronic location of resource described); value 1 (Electronic location of online version of resource described); value 2 (Related online resource); and value 8 (No display constant generated). The use of subfield $3 (Materials specified) with these values is clarified. In addition, the proposal suggests the inclusion of a value for HTTP in the first indicator position.
KEYWORDS: Field 856 (BD,HD,CD,CI); Electronic Location and Access; Relationship to Source; Access method
RELATED: DP97 (July 1996); DP 87 (June 1995)
12/15/96 - Forwarded to USMARC Advisory Group for discussion at the 1997 Midwinter MARBI meetings.
2/16/97 - Results of USMARC Advisory Group discussion - Approved. When updating the format, LC should consider RLG's suggestions concerning more meaningful and less ambiguous display constants to be recommended. It was noted, however, that display constants are only suggested and not prescribed.
2/25/97 - Results of final LC review - Approved.
PROPOSAL NO. 97-1: Definition of Second Indicator (Relationship to Source) in Field 856 (Electronic Location and Access) 1. BACKGROUND Field 856 was defined in the USMARC Bibliographic and Holdings Formats (later added to Classification and Community Information) to contain information that identifies the electronic location of an item, including enough information to retrieve the item. When it was defined in early 1993, the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) was not an accepted standard and the World Wide Web was in the early stages of development. As institutions began to use the new electronic location field, they began to discover various applications of it. Proposal No. 94-2 (Addition of Subfields $g and $3 to Field 856 (Electronic Location and Access) in the USMARC Holdings/Bibliographic Formats) resulted in the definition of subfield $3 (Materials specified) to specify the part of the item described in the record to which the 856 field applies. At the time it was felt that this usage was particularly suited to linking an electronic finding aid described in field 555 to its electronic location by specifying that the electronic object being linked to was the finding aid, rather than the collective item described in the record. Other uses for subfield $3 to specify the material being linked to were also envisioned. Discussion Paper No. 87 (Addition of Subfield $l (Uniform Resource Locator) in Linking Entry Fields 76X-78X in the USMARC Bibliographic Format) discussed the possibility of a new subfield in the linking entry fields that would contain a Uniform Resource Locator (URL). Such a subfield would provide a link to a related electronic item through an identification of the resource location on the Internet. During the discussion at the USMARC Advisory Group's June 1995 meeting, many participants had concerns about defining a subfield for a URL in the linking entry fields because of the changeable nature of URL's, requiring possible revision not only in 856 fields but also in linking entry fields. Participants thought it preferable to include the URL in the 856 field of the record for the related resource rather than in the linking entry field, since that practice would encourage people to create links without creating a bibliographic record. It was not requested that this come back as a proposal. Thus, an additional use of field 856 would be to link to a related resource, rather than limiting it to the resource described in the record. Discussion Papers No. 92 (Change in Definition of Computer File in Leader/06 (Type of record) in the USMARC Bibliographic Format) and 97 (Coding Digital Items in Leader/06 (Type of Record) in the USMARC Bibliographic Format) explored issues concerning coding the Leader/06 when the item being cataloged is in digital form as well as issues concerning digital reproductions. It pointed out that for digitized reproductions when the content of the item is the same as the original, institutions have often chosen to include field 856 in the record for the original to give information about the digitized item. In these cases, additional descriptive information about the item in its digitized form has not been needed, but only information about the location and access to it, a technique which has been attractive because of the confusing display and retrieval problems when the digitized item is cataloged separately as a computer file, and the economic considerations of creating a separate record. 2. DISCUSSION Discussion Paper No. 97 explored the various categories of electronic items that could be described in a bibliographic record. These categories are: an item existing only in digitized form (e.g., computer software, Internet resources, CD-ROMs with software, images, text, etc., a journal issued only electronically, etc.); an item issued simultaneously in more than one form, one of which is digital; items that were digitized from the original and are intended to substitute for it in which the content of the item is essentially the same; a portion of an item is digitized (e.g., only its table of contents has been made available digitally; or a digitized collection that exists only digitally, where specific items might be digitized and put together as a collection with some unifying elements.) Field 856 has come to be used to link to an electronic resource that may be related in various ways to the item described in the record and may belong to one of the categories above. It may link to the resource described in the record (i.e., an electronic resource); it may link to an online version of the resource when the record describes the original; it may link to a subset of the record; or, it may link to a related resource. In the first two cases, the link may be only to a subset of the resource described. As electronic journals have become an increasingly common means for distribution of serials, CONSER has developed cataloging policies to keep up with the changes in electronic publishing. Recently CONSER policy includes an option to catalog the electronic version of a serial separately or to add a field 856 to the record for the original when the electronic item is the same. It would be useful to be able to characterize the relationship between the electronic location recorded in field 856 with the resource described in the record in which that 856 field is contained by defining an indicator. Indicating the relationship between the data in field 856 and the resource described in the record could facilitate sorting for an online display and for generating a display constant. Considering that a record could have multiple 856 fields for information on various electronic resources related in different ways to the item described in the record, an indicator could order the fields. For instance, if a record described an electronic journal and included two 856 fields, one linking to the electronic journal itself and the other to a portion of the serial run at another location, the indicator could provide a means to display the one for the entire journal itself first. In addition, it could facilitate the generation of a display constant based on that indicator value. Subfield $3 (Materials specified) could be used to provide additional information about the relationship of the electronic resource to the record. A value could be defined for a related resource, which could be used in conjunction with a linking entry field if desired. The definition of this value will obviate the need for a URL in the linking entry fields, as previously suggested in Discussion Paper No. 87. In these cases, subfield $3 may be used in field 856 to specify the relationship between the field and the item described in the record, or subfield $8 may be used in field 856 and in the related linking entry field to link the fields together. (This technique was detailed in Proposal No. 96-4, which proposed defining a Constituent Unit Entry Field in the USMARC Bibliographic Format.) Following is a proposed list of values for a newly defined second indicator and the display constants that could be generated for each: 2nd Ind. Relationship to source Display constant # No information provided None 0 Electronic location of Electronic location: resource described 1 Electronic location of online Electronic version: version of resource described 2 Related electronic resource; Related electronic specify relationship in $3; resource: or use $8 to link to 76X-78X linking entry field) 8 No display constant generated None In any situation where the 856 field only pertains to a subset of the item described in the record, subfield $3 must be used to specify which portion the 856 field links to. In addition, $3 can contain further characteristics about the relationship between the field and the item described in the record. Examples: 1. Value 0 - Electronic location of resource described 856 field for entire resource: 130 0# $aEmerging infectious diseases (Online) 245 00 $aEmerging infectious diseases $b[computer file] 260 ## $aAtlanta, GA $bNational Center for Infectious Diseases $bCenters for Disease Control and Prevention, $c[1995- 516 8# $aASCII, Acrobat, and PostScript file formats 530 ## $aOnline version of: Emerging infectious diseases (Print). 776 1# $tEmerging infectious diseases (print) $x1080-6040 $w(DLC) 96648093 $2 (OCoLC) 31848353 856 00 $umailto:lists#list.cdc.gov $isubscribe $fEIF-* $zInclude desired file format following the hyphen in the filename: EID-ASCII, EID-PDF, or EID-PS 856 10 $aftp.cdc.gov $dpub/EID $lanonymous $zEach issue is in a separate subdirectory (e.g. vol1no1). There are additional subdirectories for each file format 856 70 $uhttp://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/eid.htm $2http [Record describes the electronic serial. Three 856 fields give alternative modes of access to the resource.] Display of 856 fields: Electronic location: mailto:lists#list.cdc.gov subscribe EIF-* Include desired file format follwing the hyphen in the filename: EID-ASCII, EID-PDF, or EID-PS Electronic location: ftp.cdc.gov pub/EID anonymous Each issue is in a separate subdirectory (e.g. vol1no1). There are additional subdirectories for each file format Electronic location: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/eid.htm 2. Value 1 - Electronic location of online version of resource described 856 field for entire resource: 245 00 $aAmerican quarterly. 260 ## $a[Baltimore, Md., etc. :$bJohns Hopkins University Press, etc.] 530 ## $aAvailable also on microfilm from UMI and in an online version. 856 71 $uhttp://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american%5Fquarterly/ $2http Display of 856 field: Electronic version: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american_quarterly 856 field for subset: 245 00 $aGlobalization of consumer markets $bstructures and strategies $cSalah S. Hassan, Erdener Kaynak, editors. 260 ## $aNew York $bInternational Business Press $cc1994. 300 ## $axxi, 333p. $bill. ; $c22 cm. 856 71 $3Table of contents $u//www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/93-10607.html $2http [Record describes the original print item; 856 field describes a subset of the original available electronically.] Display of 856 field: Electronic version: Table of contents //www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/93-10607.html 3. Value 2 - Related electronic resource 100 1# $aJackson, Shirley $d1919-1965 245 00 $kPapers $f1932-1970$g(bulk 1938-1965) 300 1# $a7,400 $fitems. 300 2# $a51 $fcontainers. 300 3# $a20.4 $flinear ft. 852 ## $aLibrary of Congress $bManuscript Division $e(Washington, D.C.) 856 72 $3Finding aid $u//lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/ead/jackson.sgm $2http [Record describes the original manuscript collection; 856 field describes the finding aid for the electronic version of that original.] Display of 856 field: Related electronic version: Finding aid //lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/ead/jackson.sgm Definition of value 4 in First indicator position. The first indicator in field 856 is for Access method and includes those methods that were the main TCP/IP protocols at the time that the field was defined. The values are as follows: 0 Email 1 FTP 2 Remote login (Telnet) 3 Dial-up 7 Method specified in subfield $2 In 1993 when Proposal No. 93-4 was approved (which included the definition of field 856), the World Wide Web was only under development and not yet widely employed. Now it is the most common method of accessing data on the Internet. Although subfield $2 (in conjunction with first indicator value 7) is available to specify access method, since HTTP is the most common method used, it would be appropriate to add an additional indicator value so that users do not need to repeat "HTTP" in subfield $2. Because of frequent technological changes it is not desirable to add values every time a new one is used, but the pervasiveness of the World Wide Web seems to warrant the definition of a new value for HTTP. 3. PROPOSED CHANGES The following is presented for consideration: * In the USMARC Bibliographic/Holdings/Classification/ Community Information Formats, define the second indicator as Relationship to Source in Field 856 with the following values: # No information provided 0 Electronic location of resource described 1 Electronic location of online version of resource described 2 Related electronic resource 8 No display constant generated * In the USMARC Bibliographic/Holdings/Classification/ Community Information Formats, add the following value: 4 HTTP See Attachment A for a description of this field if this proposal is approved. ------------------------------------------------------------------ ATTACHMENT A < > indicates addition; [ ] indicates deletion 856 Electronic Location and Access (R) Indicators First Access method 0 Email 1 FTP 2 Remote login (Telnet) 3 Dial-up <4 HTTP> 7 Method specified in subfield $2 Second <Relationship to source> [Undefined] # <No information provided> [Undefined] < 0 Electronic location of resource described 1 Electronic location of online version of resource described 2 Related electronic resource 8 No display constant generated> Subfield Codes $a Host name (R) $b Access number (R) $c Compression information (R) $d Path (R) $f Electronic name (R) $g Electronic name--End of range (R) $h Processor of request (NR) $i Instruction (R) $j Bits per second (NR) $k Password (NR) $l Logon/login (NR) $m Contact for access assistance (R) $n Name of location of host in subfield $a (NR) $o Operating system (NR) $p Port (NR) $q File transfer mode (NR) $r Settings (NR) $s File size (R) $t Terminal emulation (R) $u Uniform Resource Locator (R) $v Hours access method available (R) $w Record control number (R) $x Nonpublic note (R) $z Public note (R) $2 Access method (NR) $3 Materials specified (NR) FIELD DEFINITION AND SCOPE This field contains the information required to locate an electronic item. The information identifies the electronic location containing the item or from which it is available. It also contains information to retrieve the item by the access method identified in the first indicator position. The information contained in this field is sufficient to allow for the electronic transfer of a file, subscription to an electronic journal, or logon to an electronic resource. In some cases, only unique data elements are recorded which allow the user to access a locator table on a remote host containing the remaining information needed to access the item. Field 856 is repeated when the location data elements vary (subfields $a, $b, $d) and when more than one access method may be used. It is also repeated whenever the electronic filename varies (subfield $f), except when a single intellectual item is divided into different parts for online storage or retrieval. GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CONTENT DESIGNATORS INDICATORS First Indicator - Access method The first indicator position contains a value that defines how the rest of the data in the field will be used. If the resource is available by more than one access method, the field is repeated with data appropriate to each method. The methods defined are the main TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) protocols. The value in the first indicator position determines which subfields are appropriate for use. For example, when first indicator value 1 (FTP) is used, subfields $d (Path), $f (Electronic name), $c (Compression information), and $s (File size) are appropriate, whereas they would not be with first indicator value 2 (Remote login (Telnet)). 0 - Email Value 0 indicates that access to the electronic resource is through electronic mail (email). This access includes subscribing to an electronic journal or electronic forum through software intended to be used by an email system. 1 - FTP Value 1 indicates that the access to the electronic resource is through the File Transfer Protocol (FTP). Additional information in other subfields may enable the user to transfer the resource electronically. 2 - Remote login (Telnet) Value 2 indicates that access to the electronic resource is through remote login (Telnet). Additional information in subfields of the record may enable the user to connect to the resource electronically. 3 - Dial-up Value 3 indicates that access to the electronic resource is through a conventional telephone line (dial-up). Additional information in subfields of the record may enable the user to connect to the resource. <4- HTTP Value 4 indicates that access to the electronic resource is through the HyperText Transfer Protocol.> 7 - Method specified in subfield $2 Value 7 indicates that access to the electronic resource is through a method other than the defined values and for which an identifying code is given in subfield $2 (Source of access). Second Indicator - <Relationship to source> [Undefined] The second indicator position <contains a value that defines the relationship between the electronic resource at the location in field 856 and the resource described in the record. The value states the relationship between the entity to which the field points and the entity described in the record in which the field resides. Subfield $3 is used to provide further information about the relationship if it is not a one-to-one relationship. [is undefined and contains a blank (#)]. # - No information provided Value # indicates that no information is provided. 0 - Electronic location of resource described Value 0 indicates that the electronic location in the field is for the same resource that is described in the record. In this case, that item is an electronic resource. If the 856 field is for a subset of that resource, subfield $3 is used to specify the subset to which the field applies. The display constant Electronic location: may be generated for this value. 1 - Electronic location of online version of resource described Value 1 indicates that the electronic location in the field is for an online version of the tangible resource described in the record. In this case, the 856 field points to an electronic version of it. If the 856 field is for a subset of the original, subfield $3 is used to specify the subset to which the online version applies. The display constant Electronic version: may be generated for this value. 2 - Related electronic resource Value 2 indicates that the electronic location in the field is for a related resource and does not correspond to the resource (or its electronic version) described in the record. Subfield $3 is used to further characterize the relationship between the field and the resource described in the record. The display constant Related electronic resource: may be generated for this value. 8 - No display constant generated Value 8 indicates that no display constant is generated.