PROPOSAL NO: 97-1

DATE: December 15, 1996
REVISED:

NAME: Definition of Second Indicator (Relationship to Source) in Field 856 (Electronic Location and Access) in the USMARC Formats

SOURCE: Cooperative Online Serials Program (CONSER)

SUMMARY: This proposal suggests the definition of a second indicator in field 856 to characterize the relationship between the entity for which field 856 provides electronic location information and the entity described in the bibliographic record. Three values are proposed: value # (No information provided); value 0 (Electronic location of resource described); value 1 (Electronic location of online version of resource described); value 2 (Related online resource); and value 8 (No display constant generated). The use of subfield $3 (Materials specified) with these values is clarified. In addition, the proposal suggests the inclusion of a value for HTTP in the first indicator position.

KEYWORDS: Field 856 (BD,HD,CD,CI); Electronic Location and Access; Relationship to Source; Access method

RELATED: DP97 (July 1996); DP 87 (June 1995)

STATUS/COMMENTS:

12/15/96 - Forwarded to USMARC Advisory Group for discussion at the 1997 Midwinter MARBI meetings.

2/16/97 - Results of USMARC Advisory Group discussion - Approved. When updating the format, LC should consider RLG's suggestions concerning more meaningful and less ambiguous display constants to be recommended. It was noted, however, that display constants are only suggested and not prescribed.

2/25/97 - Results of final LC review - Approved.


PROPOSAL NO. 97-1: Definition of Second Indicator (Relationship 
to Source) in Field 856 (Electronic Location and Access)

1.      BACKGROUND
        Field 856 was defined in the USMARC Bibliographic and Holdings
Formats (later added to Classification and Community Information)
to contain information that identifies the electronic location of
an item, including enough information to retrieve the item.  When
it was defined in early 1993, the Uniform Resource Locator (URL)
was not an accepted standard and the World Wide Web was in the
early stages of development.  As institutions began to use the new
electronic location field, they began to discover various
applications of it.  
        Proposal No. 94-2 (Addition of Subfields $g and $3 to Field
856 (Electronic Location and Access) in the USMARC
Holdings/Bibliographic Formats) resulted in the definition of
subfield $3 (Materials specified) to specify the part of the item
described in the record to which the 856 field applies. At the time
it was felt that this usage was particularly suited to linking an
electronic finding aid described in field 555 to its electronic
location by specifying that the electronic object being linked to
was the finding aid, rather than the collective item described in
the record.  Other uses for subfield $3 to specify the material
being linked to were also envisioned.
  
        Discussion Paper No. 87 (Addition of Subfield $l (Uniform
Resource Locator) in Linking Entry Fields 76X-78X in the USMARC
Bibliographic Format) discussed the possibility of a new subfield
in the linking entry fields that would contain a Uniform Resource
Locator (URL).  Such a subfield would provide a link to a related
electronic item through an identification of the resource location
on the Internet.  During the discussion at the USMARC Advisory
Group's June 1995 meeting, many participants had concerns about
defining a subfield for a URL in the linking entry fields because
of the changeable nature of URL's, requiring possible revision not
only in 856 fields but also in linking entry fields.  Participants
thought it preferable to include the URL in the 856 field of the
record for the related resource rather than in the linking entry
field, since that practice would encourage people to create links
without creating a bibliographic record.  It was not requested that
this come back as a proposal. Thus, an additional use of field 856
would be to link to a related resource, rather than limiting it to
the resource described in the record.
        Discussion Papers No. 92 (Change in Definition of Computer
File in Leader/06 (Type of record) in the USMARC Bibliographic
Format) and 97 (Coding Digital Items in Leader/06 (Type of Record)
in the USMARC Bibliographic Format) explored issues concerning
coding the Leader/06 when the item being cataloged is in digital
form as well as issues concerning digital reproductions.  It
pointed out that for digitized reproductions when the content of
the item is the same as the original, institutions have often
chosen to include field 856 in the record for the original to give
information about the digitized item.  In these cases, additional
descriptive information about the item in its digitized form has
not been needed, but only information about the location and access
to it, a technique which has been attractive because of the
confusing display and retrieval problems when the digitized item is
cataloged separately as a computer file, and the economic
considerations of creating a separate record. 

2.      DISCUSSION
        Discussion Paper No. 97 explored the various categories of
electronic items that could be described in a bibliographic record. 
These categories are: an item existing only in digitized form
(e.g., computer software, Internet resources, CD-ROMs with
software, images, text, etc., a journal issued only electronically,
etc.);  an item issued simultaneously in more than one form, one of
which is digital; 
items that were digitized from the original and are intended to
substitute for it in which the content of the item is essentially
the same; a portion of an item is digitized (e.g., only its table
of contents has been made available digitally; or a digitized
collection that exists only digitally, where specific items might
be digitized and put together as a collection with some unifying
elements.) 
        
        Field 856 has come to be used to link to an electronic
resource that may be related in various ways to the item described
in the record and may belong to one of the categories above.  It
may link to the resource described in the record (i.e., an
electronic resource); it may link to an online version of the
resource when the record describes the original; it may link to a
subset of the record; or, it may link to a related resource.  In
the first two cases, the link may be only to a subset of the
resource described.
        As electronic journals have become an increasingly common
means for distribution of serials, CONSER has developed cataloging
policies to keep up with the changes in electronic publishing. 
Recently CONSER policy includes an option to catalog the electronic
version of a serial separately or to add a field 856 to the record
for the original when the electronic item is the same.  It would be
useful to be able to characterize the relationship between the
electronic location recorded in field 856 with the resource
described in the record in which that 856 field is contained by
defining an indicator.
        Indicating the relationship between the data in field 856 and
the resource described in the record could facilitate sorting for
an online display and for generating a display constant. 
Considering that a record could have multiple 856 fields for
information on various electronic resources related in different
ways to the item described in the record, an indicator could order
the fields.  For instance, if a record described an electronic
journal and included two 856 fields, one linking to the electronic
journal itself and the other to a portion of the serial run at
another location, the indicator could provide a means to display
the one for the entire journal itself first.  In addition, it could
facilitate the generation of a display constant based on that
indicator value.  Subfield $3 (Materials specified) could be used
to provide additional information about the relationship of the
electronic resource to the record.
        A value could be defined for a related resource, which could
be used in conjunction with a linking entry field if desired.  The
definition of this value will obviate the need for a URL in the
linking entry fields, as previously suggested in Discussion Paper
No. 87.  In these cases, subfield $3 may be used in field 856 to
specify the relationship between the field and the item described
in the record, or subfield $8 may be used in field 856 and in the
related linking entry field to link the fields together.  (This
technique was detailed in Proposal No. 96-4, which proposed
defining a Constituent Unit Entry Field in the USMARC Bibliographic
Format.)
        Following is a proposed list of values for a newly defined
second indicator and the display constants that could be generated
for each:

2nd Ind.   Relationship to source             Display constant

#          No information provided            None
0          Electronic location of             Electronic location:
            resource described
1          Electronic location of online      Electronic version:
            version of resource described
2          Related electronic resource;       Related electronic
            specify relationship in $3;         resource:
            or use $8 to link to 76X-78X
            linking entry field)
8          No display constant generated      None

In any situation where the 856 field only pertains to a subset of
the item described in the record, subfield $3 must be used to
specify which portion the 856 field links to.  In addition, $3 can
contain further characteristics about the relationship between the
field and the item described in the record.  
Examples:
1.  Value 0 - Electronic location of resource described
856 field for entire resource:
        130 0#      $aEmerging infectious diseases (Online)
        245 00      $aEmerging infectious diseases $b[computer file]
        260 ##      $aAtlanta, GA $bNational Center for Infectious
                    Diseases $bCenters for Disease Control and Prevention,
                    $c[1995-
        516 8#      $aASCII, Acrobat, and PostScript file formats
        530 ##      $aOnline version of: Emerging infectious diseases
                    (Print).
        776 1#      $tEmerging infectious diseases (print) $x1080-6040
                    $w(DLC) 96648093 $2 (OCoLC) 31848353
        856 00      $umailto:lists#list.cdc.gov $isubscribe $fEIF-*
                    $zInclude desired file format following the hyphen in
                    the filename: EID-ASCII, EID-PDF, or EID-PS
        856 10      $aftp.cdc.gov $dpub/EID $lanonymous $zEach issue is in
                    a separate subdirectory (e.g. vol1no1).  There are
                    additional subdirectories for each file format
        856 70      $uhttp://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/eid.htm $2http
        [Record describes the electronic serial.  Three 856 fields
        give alternative modes of access to the resource.]
Display of 856 fields:
Electronic location: mailto:lists#list.cdc.gov subscribe EIF-*
Include desired file format follwing the hyphen in the filename:
EID-ASCII, EID-PDF, or EID-PS
Electronic location: ftp.cdc.gov pub/EID anonymous Each issue is in
a separate subdirectory (e.g. vol1no1).  There are additional
subdirectories for each file format
Electronic location: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/EID/eid.htm 

2. Value 1 - Electronic location of online version of resource
described
856 field for entire resource:
        245 00      $aAmerican quarterly.
        260 ##      $a[Baltimore, Md., etc. :$bJohns Hopkins University
                    Press, etc.]
        530 ##      $aAvailable also on microfilm from UMI and in an
                    online version.
        856 71      $uhttp://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american%5Fquarterly/
                    $2http
Display of 856 field:
Electronic version: http://muse.jhu.edu/journals/american_quarterly
        
856 field for subset:
        245 00      $aGlobalization of consumer markets $bstructures and
                    strategies $cSalah S. Hassan, Erdener Kaynak, editors.
        260 ##      $aNew York $bInternational Business Press $cc1994.
        300 ##      $axxi, 333p. $bill. ; $c22 cm.
        856 71      $3Table of contents
        $u//www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/93-10607.html $2http
        [Record describes the original print item; 856 field describes
        a subset of the original available electronically.]
Display of 856 field:
Electronic version: Table of contents
//www.loc.gov/catdir/toc/93-10607.html
3. Value 2 - Related electronic resource
        100 1#      $aJackson, Shirley $d1919-1965
        245 00      $kPapers $f1932-1970$g(bulk 1938-1965)
        300 1#      $a7,400 $fitems.
        300 2#      $a51 $fcontainers.
        300 3#      $a20.4 $flinear ft.
        852 ##      $aLibrary of Congress $bManuscript Division
                    $e(Washington, D.C.)
        856 72      $3Finding aid
                    $u//lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/ead/jackson.sgm $2http
        [Record describes the original manuscript collection; 856
        field describes the finding aid for the electronic version of
        that original.]
Display of 856 field:
Related electronic version: Finding aid
//lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/ead/jackson.sgm
Definition of value 4 in First indicator position.  The first
indicator in field 856 is for Access method and includes those
methods that were the main TCP/IP protocols at the time that the
field was defined.  The values are as follows:
        0       Email
        1       FTP
        2       Remote login (Telnet)
        3       Dial-up
        7       Method specified in subfield $2
In 1993 when Proposal No. 93-4 was approved (which included the
definition of field 856), the World Wide Web was only under
development and not yet widely employed.  Now it is the most common
method of accessing data on the Internet.  Although subfield $2 (in
conjunction with first indicator value 7) is available to specify
access method, since HTTP is the most common method used, it would
be appropriate to add an additional indicator value so that users
do not need to repeat "HTTP" in subfield $2.  Because of frequent
technological changes it is not desirable to add values every time
a new one is used, but the pervasiveness of the World Wide Web
seems to warrant the definition of a new value for HTTP.

3.      PROPOSED CHANGES
The following is presented for consideration:
  *  In the USMARC Bibliographic/Holdings/Classification/
     Community Information Formats, define the second
     indicator as Relationship to Source in Field 856 with the
     following values: 
        #   No information provided
        0   Electronic location of resource described
        1   Electronic location of online version of resource
                    described
        2   Related electronic resource
        8   No display constant generated
  *  In the USMARC Bibliographic/Holdings/Classification/
     Community Information Formats, add the following value:
        4   HTTP
  See Attachment A for a description of this field if this
  proposal is approved.

------------------------------------------------------------------

                       ATTACHMENT A

<  > indicates addition; [  ] indicates deletion
856   Electronic Location and Access  (R)
Indicators
  First        Access method
    0            Email
    1            FTP
    2            Remote login (Telnet)
    3            Dial-up
    <4           HTTP>
    7            Method specified in subfield $2
  Second       <Relationship to source> [Undefined]
    #            <No information provided> [Undefined]        
<   0            Electronic location of resource described
    1            Electronic location of online version of resource
                 described
    2            Related electronic resource 
    8            No display constant generated>

Subfield Codes
    $a   Host name  (R)
    $b   Access number  (R)
    $c   Compression information  (R)
    $d   Path  (R)
    $f   Electronic name  (R)
    $g   Electronic name--End of range  (R)
    $h   Processor of request  (NR)
    $i   Instruction  (R)
    $j   Bits per second  (NR)
    $k   Password  (NR)
    $l   Logon/login  (NR)
    $m   Contact for access assistance  (R)
    $n   Name of location of host in subfield $a   (NR)
    $o   Operating system  (NR)
    $p   Port  (NR)
    $q   File transfer mode  (NR)
    $r   Settings  (NR)
    $s   File size  (R)
    $t   Terminal emulation  (R)
    $u   Uniform Resource Locator  (R)
    $v   Hours access method available  (R)
    $w   Record control number  (R)
    $x   Nonpublic note  (R)
    $z   Public note  (R)
    $2   Access method  (NR)
    $3   Materials specified  (NR)

FIELD DEFINITION AND SCOPE
       This field contains the information required to locate an
electronic item.  The information identifies the electronic
location containing the item or from which it is available.  It
also contains information to retrieve the item by the access method
identified in the first indicator position.  The information
contained in this field is sufficient to allow for the electronic
transfer of a file, subscription to an electronic journal, or logon
to an electronic resource.  In some cases, only unique data
elements are recorded which allow the user to access a locator
table on a remote host containing the remaining information needed
to access the item.
       Field 856 is repeated when the location data elements vary
(subfields $a, $b, $d) and when more than one access method may be
used.  It is also repeated whenever the electronic filename varies
(subfield $f), except when a single intellectual item is divided
into different parts for online storage or retrieval.

GUIDELINES FOR APPLYING CONTENT DESIGNATORS
INDICATORS
First Indicator - Access method 
       The first indicator position contains a value that defines how
       the rest of the data in the field will be used.  If the
       resource is available by more than one access method, the
       field is repeated with data appropriate to each method.  The
       methods defined are the main TCP/IP (Transmission Control
       Protocol/Internet Protocol) protocols.
       The value in the first indicator position determines which
       subfields are appropriate for use.  For example, when first
       indicator value 1 (FTP) is used, subfields $d (Path), $f
       (Electronic name), $c (Compression information), and $s (File
       size) are appropriate, whereas they would not be with first
       indicator value 2 (Remote login (Telnet)).
       0  - Email
           Value 0 indicates that access to the electronic resource is
           through electronic mail (email).  This access includes
           subscribing to an electronic journal or electronic forum
           through software intended to be used by an email system.
       1 - FTP
           Value 1 indicates that the access to the electronic resource
           is through the File Transfer Protocol (FTP).  Additional
           information in other subfields may enable the user to
           transfer the resource electronically.
       2 - Remote login (Telnet)
           Value 2 indicates that access to the electronic resource is
           through remote login (Telnet).  Additional information in
           subfields of the record may enable the user to connect to
           the resource electronically.
       3 - Dial-up
           Value 3 indicates that access to the electronic resource is
           through a conventional telephone line (dial-up).  Additional
           information in subfields of the record may enable the user
           to connect to the resource.
       <4- HTTP
           Value 4 indicates that access to the electronic resource is
           through the HyperText Transfer Protocol.>
       7 - Method specified in subfield $2
           Value 7 indicates that access to the electronic resource is
           through a method other than the defined values and for which
           an identifying code is given in subfield $2 (Source of
           access).
Second Indicator - <Relationship to source> [Undefined] 
       The second indicator position <contains a value that defines
       the relationship between the electronic resource at the
       location in field 856 and the resource described in the
       record.  The value states the relationship between the entity
       to which the field points and the entity described in the
       record in which the field resides.  Subfield $3 is used to
       provide further information about the relationship if it is
       not a one-to-one relationship.  [is undefined and contains a
       blank (#)].
    # -    No information provided
           Value # indicates that no information is provided.
    0 -    Electronic location of resource described
           Value 0 indicates that the electronic location in the field
           is for the same resource that is described in the record. 
           In this case, that item is an electronic resource.  If the
           856 field is for a subset of that resource, subfield $3 is
           used to specify the subset to which the field applies.  The
           display constant Electronic location: may be generated for
           this value.
    1 - Electronic location of online version of resource described
           Value 1 indicates that the electronic location in the field
           is for an online version of the tangible resource described
           in the record.  In this case, the 856 field points to an
           electronic version of it.  If the 856 field is for a subset
           of the original, subfield $3 is used to specify the subset
           to which the online version applies.  The display constant
           Electronic version: may be generated for this value.
    2 - Related electronic resource 
           Value 2 indicates that the electronic location in the field
           is for a related resource and does not correspond to the
           resource (or its electronic version) described in the
           record.  Subfield $3 is used to further characterize the
           relationship between the field and the resource described
           in the record. The display constant Related electronic
           resource: may be generated for this value.   
    8 - No display constant generated
           Value 8 indicates that no display constant is generated.


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