NAME: Redefinition of code "m" (Computer file) in Leader/06 in the USMARC Bibliographic Format
SOURCE: Library of Congress
SUMMARY: This paper proposes the redefinition of Leader/06 code m (Computer file) to specific kinds of electronic resources, including computer software, alphanumeric data, games, computer-oriented multimedia, online systems and services, etc. Other types of electronic resources would be coded for their significant aspect. It proposes that field 007 be added as a mandatory element for electronic resources.KEYWORDS: Leader/06 (Bibliographic); Type of record; Computer files; Field 007 (Bibliographic/Holdings); Physical Description Fixed Field
RELATED: 97-3 (February 1997); DP97 (July 1996); DP92 (January 1996); 95-9 (June 1995)
12/15/96 - Forwarded to USMARC Advisory Group for discussion at the 1997 Midwinter MARBI meetings.
2/20/97 - Results of USMARC Advisory Group discussion - Deferred.
Some participants felt that the proposal was not well enough developed to move forward with. LC should come back with another proposal that address OCLC concerns: 1) that the choice in Leader/06 should be clear 2) that guidelines need to be consistently applied from one environment to the next, and 3) that there be somewhere in the record to determine whether the record describes an electronic or nonelectronic version. The latter requirement needs to be in a mandatory field, not optional field such as 006 or 007. LC should come back with another proposal for the summer meeting that reflect these concerns and that include examples for all types of materials.
2/26/97 - Results of final LC review - Agreed with the MARBI decision.
5/1/97 - Revised. Forwarded to the USMARC Advisory Group for discussion at the June 1997 MARBI meetings.
6/29/97 - Results of USMARC Advisory Group discussion - Approved as amended. The following changes were made:
1) The definition of Leader/06 was amended to include "numeric data" rather than "alphanumeric data". The "etc." in the list of electronic resources included under code m was removed; if new forms arise, they should be explicitly added in the definition.
2) The format needs to make explicit that field 007 is mandatory only if the main item described in the record has a carrier that is a computer file. It is not mandatory if only accompanying material is computer file or if the record describes a non-electronic resource and points to its electronic version in an 856 field.
It was recommended that LC look at the values in CF 008/26 (Type of computer file) and determine whether any should be made obsolete as a result of this proposal. If so, proposals should be brought forward.
It was also suggested that LC formulate a priority list of codes to be used in determining the significant aspect to help ensure consistency in application. This document should be posted on the USMARC list for comments. LC should come back with a proposal to change the name of the Books 008 to "Text". Similar issues will arise with the expected proposal from the Manuscripts community to deal with the Leader/06 manuscript codes.
8/21/97 - Result of final LC review - Agreed with MARBI decision.
PROPOSAL NO. 97-3R: Redefinition of code "m" (Computer file) in Leader/06 1. BACKGROUND The coding in Leader/06 for computer files was discussed on four previous occasions at meetings of the USMARC Advisory Group. The impetus for a possible change included the following: - It has become questionable whether categorizing all electronic material as a computer file is useful for retrieval and manipulation of bibliographic records, since it separates the record for the original from the digitized version. Many institutions are digitizing their collections and making them available electronically. - Because of economic considerations, many electronic items are not being separately cataloged, but information about the electronic item is being added to the record for the original. - Since the implementation of Format Integration, field 006 (Fixed-Length Data Elements--Additional Material Characteristics) allows for coding bibliographic records for more than one set of characteristics, opening up the opportunity to supply more information about the item if it falls into more than one category of material. Proposal No. 95-9 (Encoding of Digital Maps in the USMARC Bibliographic Format) first brought up this issue. It proposed renaming code "e" in Leader/06 from "Printed map" to "Cartographic material" so that all maps, whether digital or print, could be coded the same (there is also a code for "manuscript map") and adding a code to Maps 008/25 (Type of cartographic material) for digital. Although the portion of the proposal concerning Leader/06 was approved, it was suggested that a broader discussion paper be presented. Two discussion papers (Discussion Paper No. 92: Change in Definition of Computer File in Leader/06 and Discussion Paper No. 97: Coding Digital Items in Leader/06) were presented to the USMARC Advisory Group in January 1996 and July 1996. Both explored limiting the definition of code "m" in Leader/06 so that it is used only for executable software or for executable software, numeric data, and combinations of forms, one of which is electronic. There was general agreement that it would better serve users to change the definition of code m so that one does not have to code everything electronic as a computer file. Proposal No. 97-3 was discussed in February 1997 at the USMARC Advisory Group meetings. It further explored the redefinition of code "m" in Leader/06 and proposed three options. The first suggested redefining the code to include software, numeric data, and a mixture of forms; the second suggested changing code m to include only executable software and changing the definition of code p (Mixed material) to open it up so that it is used for a mixture of forms, i.e., not restricted to archival material; the third suggested the latter but included numeric data in the definition of code m. OCLC voiced specific concerns about the proposal, and participants agreed that a future proposal needs to address these: 1) that the choice of which Leader/06 code to use must be clear regardless of which AACR2 chapter is being used for cataloging; 2) that guidelines also be clear so that codes can be consistently applied from one environment to another; and, 3) that something explicit is in the record (and not in an optional field) to indicate that it describes an electronic item. 2. LEADER/06 DEFINITION The definition of m in Leader/06 is the key to helping catalogers selet the appropriate Leader/06 code and consistently apply codes from one environment to another. Earlier discussions detailed the many uses systems make of the Leader/06. Some of these are: separating databases based on form of material; sorting records; matching records for duplicate detection; selecting subsets for products distributed. Because of the many uses of this coded element, the coding of Leader/06 has great impact on retrieval and manipulation of the record, so the use of the codes need to be consistent and predictable. Field 006 can give the additional descriptive information for the secondary form of material, although not all systems are currently using it for retrieval the same way as 008 is used. Since 006 is an optional field, OCLC did not think it was desirable to rely on it to express the fact that an item is electronic if coding for the significant aspect of the material in Leader/06. The current definition of Leader/06 in the _USMARC Format for Bibliographic Data_, code "m" for Computer file is: m - Computer file Code m indicates that the content of the record is for a body of information encoded in a manner which allows it to be processed by a computer. The information in the computer file may be numeric or textual data, computer software, or a combination of these types. Although a file may be stored on a variety of media (such as magnetic tape or disk, punched cards, or optical character recognition font documents), the file itself is independent of the medium on which it is stored. This definition implies that any electronic item needs to be identified in the Leader/06 as a Computer file and that a separate record would need to be made for a electronic reproduction, since the record for the original would be coded according to the original carrier/content. In previous discussions there has been support for opening up this definition so that the institution is not mandated to categorize all electronic items as computer files, allowing for more flexibility. In order to allow for electronic items to be coded for their significant aspect (e.g., photograph, video, text, etc.), rather than for the fact they are electronic, the following definition is proposed: m - Computer file Code m indicates that the content of the record is for the following classes of electronic resources: computer software (including programs, games, fonts), alphanumeric data, computer-oriented multimedia, online systems or services, etc. For these classes of materials, if there is a significant aspect that causes it to fall into another Leader/06 category, code for that significant aspect (e.g. vector data that is cartographic is not coded as numeric but as cartographic). Other classes of electronic resources are coded for their most significant aspect (e.g. language material, graphic, cartographic material, sound, music, moving image). In case of doubt or if the most significant aspect cannot be determined, consider the item computer file. This definition enumerates the types of computer files that would be coded under code "m". As new electronic forms emerge, the definition may need to be modified. In addition, it gives guidance on how to code it in cases of doubt. This satisfies the requirements that the definition be clear so that the person creating the record could determine which code to use and that it be consistently applied in different environments. By moving the electronic aspects from Leader/06, the format issues can be divorced from the cataloging rules. Since field 006 can give characteristics of a second form of material, the choice of code in Leader/06 is not dependent upon the choice of AACR2 chapter used. The cataloger still needs to choose which chapter of AACR2 is appropriate for description, which will determine, among other things, which fields are needed in the record. The cataloger is no longer constrained by the format, since any USMARC defined fields will be valid for any type of material as a result of Format Integration. 3. ADDITION OF FIELD 007 FOR COMPUTER FILES Field 007 is proposed below as the "best" place to clearly identify the electronic nature of items not codes as computer file in Leader/06. The previous discussion of allowing records for electronic items to be coded for their significant aspect rather than as computer files indicated the need for an explicit indication that the item is electronic. The addition of a new value for electronic in Field 008/23 Form of item in Books, Music, Serials, and Mixed Materials and the addition of a new 008 character position for Form of item in Maps and Visual Materials was considered. However, this solution results in numerous possible places in the record to look for information about the electronic aspect. Consequently field 007 seems a more desirable alternative to unambiguously show that the item is electronic, and it is proposed that this field be required for electronic items (coding at least the first two character positions with fills for the rest if desired). See Attachment B for information about using 008 to indicate that an item is electronic. Field 007 for computer files includes the following: Computer file (007/00 = c) 00 Category of material 01 Specific material designation 02 Undefined (formerly Original versus reproduction aspect) 03 Color 04 Dimensions 05 Sound The use of this field in all cases for electronic resources would clearly indicate that the physical form of the item described in the record is electronic. In the USMARC Bibliographic Format, Field 007 was mandatory if applicable according to national level requirements until 1990, when it was made optional after the definition of an 007 for text (Proposal No. 89-8-6). It has been mandatory if applicable in the Canadian MARC format. The Association of Research Libraries' _Guidelines for bibliographic records for preservation microform masters_ (1990) requires field 007 for microforms, and the current specification on the core record for serials in the _CONSER Editing Guide_ stipulates that 007 is mandatory for microform and computer file serials. The similarities in treatment between microforms and electronic material has been noted in previous discussions of this issue. In cases where the record for the original is used and an 856 field added to point to the electronic version of the item, field 007 could also be added. In this case, the 856 second indicator would be coded as value 1 (online version of resource). (The 856 second indicator was added in February 1997 as Relationship to source in Proposal No. 97-1.) The indicator value and the use of field 007 would clearly indicate that the record also covers the electronic counterpart of the work described. 4. USE OF FIELD 006 Additional information about the computer file aspects may be added if there is a characteristic that is coded in the computer files 008 that needs to be brought out. This may be used by systems for limiting or sorting records. The 008 character positions specific to computer files (and consequently their 006) contains three defined elements: target audience (CF008/22, also defined in Books, Music, and Visual Materials); type of computer file (CF008/26); and government publication (CF008/28; also defined in Books, Maps, Serials, and Visual materials). Generally only the type of computer file would be useful, and in many cases it would be redundant with the value in Leader/06. For example, if the record were for text and coded "a" in Leader/06, adding "d" for document in 006/09 (the same as 008/26) would be redundant. In other cases, where the record has been coded for the significant aspect, it may be helpful to indicate a secondary form in 006/09 (e.g. a raster image for cartographic material that is coded as "e" in leader/06 and has a Maps 008 could include code "c" for representational in 006/09). A general material designator (GMD) may be given in 245$h to indicate that the physical format is computer file (although the use of the GMD is optional); it is not necessary for the 008 to agree with the GMD, so the 008 for the content of the item would be given. 5. MULTIMEDIA ITEMS The question arose in the previous discussions of this issue as to how to code multimedia items which are becoming increasingly prevalent. In these cases several kinds of material interact and it is impossible to determine the most significant aspect. Previous papers have suggested either opening up the definition of code o (Kit) to include these (although the use of a visual materials 008 makes this inappropriate) or code p (Mixed materials). This proposal recommends using code m for multimedia items in which it is impossible to determine a significant aspect and enumerates types of multimedia items in the definition. Where a significant aspect can be determined, the code for that aspect would be used. 6. IMPACT OF CHANGES ON SYSTEMS Since some systems physically separate records by the type of 008, changing the definition of code m will have an impact on systems. Currently for electronic materials, the 008 would be computer files for all but maps, unless a separate record had not been created and field 856 added to the record for the original Even if separation of record types is not an issue, integrated systems would have many records with computer files 008s that should have other 008s if this proposal is approved. Systems may want to identify material type for sorting or limiting and will need to use field 007 (as RLIN currently does). OCLC currently uses Leader/06 for duplicate detection, and may have to make changes to look at 007 for computer files in this process. 7. PROPOSED CHANGES The following is presented for consideration: * In the USMARC Bibliographic Format, change the definition of code "m" as follows: m - Computer file Code m indicates that the content of the record is for the following classes of electronic resources: computer software (including programs, games, fonts), alphanumeric data, computer-oriented multimedia, online systems or services, etc. For these classes of materials, if there is a significant aspect that causes it to fall into another Leader/06 category, code for that significant aspect (e.g. vector data that is cartographic is not coded as numeric but as cartographic). Other classes of electronic resources are coded for their most significant aspect (e.g. language material, graphic, cartographic material, sound, music, moving image). In case of doubt or if the most significant aspect cannot be determined, consider the item computer file. * In the USMARC Bibliographic and Holdings Formats, make field 007 for computer files mandatory for electronic resources. Attachment A shows how each type of computer file for which there is a definition in 008/26 would be coded in Ldr/06 and field 008 if code m were redefined as above. Attachment B shows the alternative of adding a value in field 008 for electronic. Attachment C gives examples of different types of electronic resources and how they would be coded if this proposal is approved. ------------------------------------------------------------------- ATTACHMENT A Types of computer files This chart shows each type of computer file for which there is a value in Computer files 008/26 (Type of computer file) and how each would be coded in Leader/06 and 008. Field 006 may be added if there are any data elements in the Computer file 008/006 that would be useful to record. (In some cases, coding for 006 will give no further information than is in the 008, since the only character position in the CF008 that is different from the other material's 008 is 008/26.) It may be desirable to examine the definitions in 008/26 to further specify how to code different types of computer files given recent developments in the electronic world. (Examples of possible changes include changing numberic to alphanumeric; refining the definition of interactive multimedia; adding more guidelines to representational.) 008/26 type Ldr06 008 a Numeric* m CF b Computer program m CF c Representational* k VM d Document a Bk or Ser e Bibliographic data a Bk or Ser f Font m CF g Game m CF h Sound i Music i Interactive multimedia* m CF j Online system or service m CF m Combination m CF u Unknown m CF z Other* m CF *Electronic materials in this category are coded as computer files unless there is another more significant form, such as numeric data that is cartographic, a musical game, or multimedia that is primarily graphics. In those cases the item is coded for its more significant aspect. ------------------------------------------------------------------ ATTACHMENT B Using 008 to indicate electronic The use of a character position in field 008 was considered to indicate that the item described in the record is electronic. This has not been proposed because it resulted in requiring systems/users to look in several different places to determine whether a resource is electronic. A new value "j" could be defined for electronic in 008/23 and 006/06 (Form of item) for Books, Music, Serials, and Mixed Materials. (Previous discussions of this issue have pointed out the similarity between the treatment of electronic material and the treatment of microforms, which are not identified by a distinctive type of record code but are coded for the type of material characteristics.) The character position is defined as follows: 008/23 Form of item # None of the following a Microfilm b Microfiche c Microopaque d Large print f Braille r Regular print reproduction Codes g, h, i, and z are obsolete. Maps and Visual materials do not have a character position for Form of item. Visual materials contains Type of visual material in 008/33, but since only one character position has been allotted, only one value can be used. It is defined as follows: 008/33 Type of visual material a Art original b Kit c Art reproduction d Diorama f Filmstrip g Game i Picture k Graphic l Technical drawing m Motion picture n Chart o Flash card p Microscope slide q Model r Realia s Slide t Transparency v Videorecording w Toy z Other The codes would no longer be mutually exclusive with the addition of a code for electronic, so another character position should be used. For Maps a value could be added for electronic to 008/33-34 (Special format characteristics) even though the categories are not mutually exclusive, since there are two character positions allotted. 008/33-34 Special format characteristics (Maps) # No specified special format characteristics e Manuscript j Picture card, post card k Calendar l Puzzle m Braille n Game o Wall map p Playing cards q Large print r Loose-leaf z Other (Codes a, b, c, d, f, g, and h are obsolete.) However, it would be cleaner to define a new character position to make it consistent with Visual materials and so that systems would not potentially have to look at two codes to isolate the one for electronic. A new character position 008/29 could be added to Maps and Visual materials as Form of item with two possible values: # (None of the following) and j (Electronic) to match the value chosen for the other Form of item values. If this alternative were selected, the following values would need to be added in the USMARC Bibliographic Format to Books, Music, Serials, and Mixed Materials 008/23 (Form of item) and 006/06: j Electronic The following character position would need to be added for Maps and Visual Materials: 008/29 Form of item 006/12 Form of item # None of the following j Electronic If this alternative were selected, the following content designators in the record would have to be consulted to determine that an item is electronic: Leader/06 008/23 in all but CF, Maps, VM 008/29 in Maps, VM Other clues that item is electronic: 006/00 or 007/00 and 007/01 for remote 856 second indicator value 1 (if desired; if a separate record is not created for the electronic version) If using field 007 (as proposed), the following content designators in the record would have to be consulted to determine that an item is electronic: Leader/06 007/00 and 01 856 second indicator value 1 (if desired) ---------------------------------------------------------------- ATTACHMENT C Examples Examples are included for different types of computer files. Coding in Leader/06 reflects the proposed redefinition of value m, and the addition of a value for electronic (008/23 Form of item except 008/29 in Maps and VM). Field 006 and 007 are included where they add useful information; in most cases 006 has not been added. System generated elements are indicated with an asterisk (*). 1. Numeric (Ldr/06=m (Computer file); 008/26=a for numeric) Ldr *****nmm##22*****#a#4500 007 co||g# 008 920505s1992####dcu########a#f######eng 040 $aNIC $cNIC 130 0 $aCensus of Population and Housing (1990). $pBlock statistics. 245 10 $a1990 Census of Population and Housing. $pBlock statistics $h[computer file] /$cU.S. Dept. of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Data User Services Division. 256 $aComputer data. 260 $aWashington, D.C. : $bThe Division, $c 300 $a10 computer laser optical disks ; $c4 3/4 in. + $e1 technical documentation. 516 $aNumeric (Summary statistics). 538 $aSystem requirements: IBM PC (286) or compatible; DOS 3.0 or later; 640K RAM; CD-ROM player. 651 0 $aUnited States $xCensus, 21st, 1990 $vDatabases. 651 0 $aUnited States $xPopulation $xStatistics $vDatabases. 650 0 $aHousing $zUnited States $xStatistics $vDatabases. 2. Computer program (Ldr/06=m (Computer file); 008/26=b for computer program) Ldr *****nmm##22****#a#4500 007 cj||a# 008 951207s1995####ohu########b########eng 245 00 $aPassport for Windows software $h[computer file]. 250 $aVersion 1.00. 256 $aComputer program. 260 $aDublin, Ohio : $bOCLC, $cc1995. 300 $a4 computer disks ; $c3 1/2 in. + $e1 getting started guide + 4 templates. 538 $aSystem requirements: IBM PC or compatible with 80386sx or higher processor; 4MB or more of memory; MS-DOS 3.1 or higher; Microsoft Windows 3.1 or higher; hard-disk drive with minimum of 10MB available space; modem (2400 bps) and a telephone, or OCLC multidrop-line, or OCLCs Telecommunications Linking Program (TLP), or Internet access, or other LAN connection; for direct Internet access, TCP/IP software compatible with Microsoft Windows Sockets specification; VGA graphics monitor and adapter (recommended); mouse; TrueType fonts enabled. 650 0 $aEmulators (Computer programs) $vSoftware. 3 Representational (Ldr/06=k (2-dimensional nonprojectable graphic; 008 for VM) Ldr *****nkm##22*****#a#4500 007 coucga 008 950710s1993####waunnn############cneng 040 $aCMalg $cCMalg $dNjR $dNIC 110 2 $aNational Gallery (Great Britain) 245 00 $aMicrosoft art gallery $h [computer file] : $bthe collection of the National Gallery, London. 246 30 $aCollection of the National Gallery, London 256 $aComputer data and program. 260 $a[Redmond, Wash.] : $bMicrosoft Corporation, $cc1993. 300 $a1 computer laser optical disc : $bsd., col. ; $c4 3/4 in. + $e1 sheet (folded) 538 $aSystem requirements: Apple Macintosh computer that supports a 13" (640x 480) 256-color or higher-resolution monitor; system 6.0.7 or later; 4 MB of RAM; at least 1 MB of available hard disk space; CD-ROM drive. 650 0 $aPainting $vCatalogs. 650 0 $aPainting $zEngland $zLondon $vCatalogs. 610 2 $aNational Gallery (Great Britain)$vCatalogs. 4. Document (Ldr/06=a (Language material); 008 for Books) Ldr *****nam##22*****#a#4500 007 cr|||| 008 960803s1996####maua##########001#0#eng 040 $aUOK $cUOK 100 0 $aHomer. 240 10 $aIliad. $lEnglish 245 14 $aThe Iliad $h[computer file] / $cby Homer ; translated by Samuel Butler. 256 $aComputer data (multiple files : 788K). 260 $a[Cambridge, Mass.] : $bInternet Classics Archive,$cc1996. 538 $aMode of access: Internet. 650 0 $aAchilles (Greek mythology) $vPoetry. 650 0 $aTrojan War $vPoetry. 856 40 $uhttp://the-tech.mit.edu/Classics/Homer/iliad.html 5. Bibliographic data (Ldr/06=a (Language material); 006 added for CF with 006/10=e (Bibliographic data)) Ldr *****nam##22*****#a#4500 006 m#########e######## 007 cr|||| 008 970404m199u9999nju###########000#0#eng 040 $aIWA $cIWA 245 00 $aBooks in print $h[computer file] 256 $aComputer data and program. 260 $a[New Providence, N.J.] : $bReed Reference ; $a[Dublin, Ohio] : $bOCLC [distributor], $c[199-?]- 516 $aSearch engine. 538 $aMode of access: Remote access through the World Wide Web. 650 0 $aCatalogs, Book $zUnited States. 650 0 $aBooks $zUnited States $vDatabases. 651 0 $aUnited States $xImprints $vCatalogs. 856 4 $uhttp://www.lib.iastate.edu/scholar/db/bookip.html 6. Font (Ldr/06=m; 008/26=f (font) Ldr *****nmm##22*****#a#4500 007 cjuna# 008 930401s1992####cau########f########eng 040 $aGHJ $cGHJ 245 00 $aApple font pack $h[computer file] 260 $aCupertino, CA : $bApple Computer, Inc., $c1992. 300 $a4 computer disks ; $c3 1/2 in. + $e1 user guide + 1 installation guide. 538 $aSystem requirements: Macintosh; System 7.0 or later. 650 0 $aComputer fonts. 7. Game (Ldr/06=m; 008/26=g (game)) Ldr *****nmm##22*****#a#4500 007 co||ga 008 960405s1995####xxu########g######## 040 $aLVL $cLVL 245 00 $aMr. Potato Head saves Veggie Valley $h[computer file]. 250 $aMacintosh/Windows version. 256 $aComputer program 260 $a[United States]: $bHasbro, Inc., $c1995. 300 $a1 computer laser optical disc: $bsd., col. : $c4 3/4 in. + $e1 user's guide. 538 $aSystem requirements: Macintosh: 68030 25MHz computer; System 7.0 or higher; 8MB RAM; double-speed CD-ROM drive; color monitor (640 x 480, 256 colors). Windows: IBM compatible 486DX 33MHz computer; Windows 3.1 or Windows 95; 8MB RAM; double-speed CD-ROM drive; Super VGA (640 x 480, 256 colors); sound card. 650 0 $aEducational games $vJuvenile software. 650 0 $aProblem solving $vJuvenile Software. 8. Sound (Ldr/06=i; 008 for music) Ldr *****nmm##22******#a#4500 007 co|cga 008 940818s1993####nyuzzn#####h###s####eng 040 $aGHJ $cGHJ 245 00 $a1000 of the world's greatest sound effects $h[computer file] 260 $aSpring Valley, NY : $bInteractive Pub. Corp., $c1993. 300 $a1 computer laser optical disc : $bsd., col. ; $c4 3/4 in. + $e1 user s guide. 538 $aSystem requirements: 386-based IBM PC or compatible PC; 2 MB RAM (4 MB recommended); hard drive with 300 KB free (additional 2MB to install Multimedia Sound Studio); Windows 3.1; VGA or high resolution graphics adaptor and matching monitor; mouse; Arial TrueType font; Windows multimedia sound card; CD-Rom drive with Microsoft CD extensions. 650 0 $aSounds $vSoftware. 9. Interactive multimedia (Ldr/06=m; 008/26=i (Interactive multimedia)) Ldr *****cmm##22******#a#4500 007 co|mga 008 960108s1995####nyu####j###i########eng 040 $aIMF $cIMF $dIBS 245 00 $aBeethoven lives upstairs $h[computer file]. 260 $a[New York?] : $b Children s Group : $b Distributed by BMG Distribution, $c c1995. 300 $a1 computer laser optical disc : $bsd., col. ; $c4 3/4 in. + $e1 user s guide. 538 $aSystem requirements: IBM or compatible computer, 486SX or better, 33 MHZ (MPC standard); 4 MB RAM (8 MB RAM recommended); MS DOS 5.0 or later; Windows 3.1 or later; 4 MB free hard disk space; sound card; mouse; 256 color VGA monitor; CD-ROM drive. 650 0 $aMusic $vJuvenile software. 10. Online system or service (Ldr/06=m; 008/26=j (Online system or service)) Ldr *****cmm##22******#a#4500 007 cr|||| 008 960401s1992####ohu########j########eng 040 $aCLE $cCLE 245 00 $aCleveland free-net community computer system $h[computer file] / $cby Case Western Reserve University, Office of Information Services. 256 $aComputer data. 260 $a[Cleveland, Ohio] : $bThe Office, $cc1992. 538 $aMode of access: dial-in access with modem or Internet. 650 0 $aElectronic mail systems $zOhio $zCleveland. 650 0 $aComputer networks $zOhio $zCleveland. 650 0 $aComputer bulletin boards $z Ohio $z Cleveland. 856 2 $afreenet-in-a.cwru.edu $b1-216-368-3888 $nCase Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH. 856 2 $afreenet-in-b.cwru.edu $b1-216-368-3888 $nCase Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH. 856 2 $afreenet-in-c.cwru.edu $b1-216-368-3888 $nCase Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH. 11. Other (Cartographic) (Ldr/06=e (Cartographic material)) Ldr *****nem##22*****#a#4500 007 co|cg# 008 960425s1994####dcu#################eng 040 $aCUS $cCUS $dNIC 130 0 $aWorld ocean atlas 1994 (CD-ROM ed.) 245 00 $aWorld ocean atlas 1994 $h[computer file]. 260 $aWashington, DC : $bU.S. Dept. of Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service, National Oceanographic Data Center, Ocean Climate Laboratory, $c1994- 300 $a11 computer laser optical discs ; $c4 3/4 in. issued in leather booklet + $e1 documentation volume (39 p. : ill. ; 28 cm.) + 1 computer disk (3 1/2 in.) 538 $aSystem requirements: IBM-PC or compatible; 640k RAM plus 500k free memory; DOS 3.0 or later (preferably 6.2 or later); any Microsoft DOS Extensions that supports a CD-ROM player with ISO 9660 software driver; hard disk drive with at least 1MB free space; VGA color monitor; mouse optional. 530 $aAlso available in a print ed. 650 0 $aOceanography $xCharts, diagrams, etc. 650 0 $aChemical oceanography $xMaps. 650 0 $aOcean temperature $vDatabases. 650 0 $aSalinity $vDatabases. 12. 856 added to original for electronic version (Ldr/06=k (2- dimensional nonprojectable graphic; 007 added; 008/22=k (graphic)) Ldr *****nkc##22*****#a#4500 007 cr|||| 008 950619i18601960xxunnn#|||||||a##|kneng 040 $aDLC $cDLC $dDLC $egihc 245 00 $aSelected Civil War Photographs, 1861-1865 (Library of Congress)$h[graphic]. 246 33 $aCivil War Photograph Collection (Library of Congress) 260 $cca. 1860-1960, bulk 1861-1865. 300 $a1,114 photographs +$e4 illustrations. 530 $aAvailable on the Internet;$bLibrary of Congress World Wide Web site (//www.loc.gov). 530 $3Selections from Anthony-Taylor-Ordway-Eaton Collection$aAvailable on 2 reels of microfilm;$bPublished as Civil War Photographs, 1861-1865 (Library of Congress Photoduplication Service, 1961) 530 $aAvailable on videodisc;$bLibrary of Congress, American Memory Program, 1994, unpublished. 530 $aCD-ROM;$bAustin, Tex. : Stokes Imaging Services, 1994. 650 7 $aBattlefields$zUnited States$y1860-1870.$2lctgm 650 7 $aForts & fortifications$zUnited States$y1860-1870.$2lctgm 650 7 $aMilitary officers$zUnited States$y1860-1870.$2lctgm 651 0 $aUnited States$xHistory$yCivil War, 1861-1865. 651 0 $aWashington (D.C.)$xHistory$yCivil War, 1861-1865. 655 7 $aPortrait photographs$y1850-1890.$2gmgpc 856 41 $3finding aid$dcwp$nLibrary of Congress, Washington, D.C. $u//lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/cwphome.html