PROPOSAL NO: 98-6

DATE: November 15, 1997
REVISED:

NAME: Definition of value s (electronic) in 008 character positions

SOURCE: OCLC

SUMMARY: This paper proposes that a code be added in the 008 to indicate that the carrier of an item is electronic. This request results from the change of definition of Leader/06 code m (Computer file), so that electronic items may be identified in a similar way to microforms. The paper proposes that value s be added to 008/23 (Form of item) in Books, Music, Serials, and Mixed Materials; that a new character position 008/29 be added to Maps and Visual Materials (with the same codes as in 008/23); as an option, that value s (Electronic) be added in Maps 008/33-34 and in Visual Materials 008/29; and that value s be added to 008/22 (Form of original item) in Serials.

KEYWORDS: Field 008/23 (Books, Music, Serials, Mixed Materials); Field 008/29 (Visual Materials); Field 008/29 (Maps); Field 008/33-34 (Maps); Field 008/25 (Maps); Field 008/22 (Serials); Form of item; Form of original item; Special Computer files

format characteristics; Type of cartographic material; RELATED: 95-9 (June 1995); 97-3R (June 1997); 97-3 (February 1997); DP97 (July 1996); DP92 (January 1996)

STATUS/COMMENTS:

11/15/97 - Forwarded to USMARC Advisory Group for discussion at the 1998 Midwinter MARBI meetings.

1/11/98 - Results of USMARC Advisory Group discussion - Approved Option 1. Participants felt there were advantages to having the code for electronic for maps and visual materials in the same character position and the values in the byte the same as in other forms of material.

2/11/98 - Results of final LC review - Approved.


PROPOSAL NO. 98-6: Definition of value s (electronic) in 008 character positions

1.     BACKGROUND

Proposal No. 97-3R (Redefinition of code m (Computer file) in
Leader/06 in the USMARC Bibliographic Format) was discussed at the
meetings of the USMARC Advisory Group in San Francisco in June
1997.  This proposal followed two previous discussion papers and
one previous proposal about changing the definition of Leader/06
code m (Computer file) to limit its use so that bibliographic
records may be coded more for their content than their physical
carrier.  The definition proposed was approved with slight
amendments.  In order to satisfy the need to indicate explicitly
that an item is electronic when coded as something other than code
m in Leader/06, the paper proposed making 007 mandatory for items
whose physical carrier is a computer file.  This solution was
approved, although not by a large margin.

OCLC has expressed concern about using the 007 for its processing
to indicate that the item is electronic. In particular it is a
problem for duplicate detection.  Some difficulties with the
solution that was approved are as follows:

       - There is no way to enforce the mandatory nature of 007,
       since it is mandatory only if the item is electronic.  A
       system cannot always identify that the item is electronic in
       order to enforce inclusion of the 007.  007 would need to be
       included for all types of material (including text).  

       - Multiple 007s can be included in a record for different
       reasons 1) carrier of primary material, 2) carrier of one part
       of mixed material, 3) carrier of accompanying material.  This
       makes it difficult to determine if the 007 is for the carrier
       of the accompanying material or the primary material.  

       - Previous discussions of this issue have pointed out the
       similarity between the treatment of electronic material and
       the treatment of microforms, which are not identified by a
       distinctive type of record code but are coded in the Leader
       for the type of content characteristics.  For microforms, the
       codes in 008/23 (Form of item) for microforms have been useful
       for identifying the microform aspect when a 007 for microfilm
       was not included in the record.  OCLC would like to be able to
       look in the same place for the electronic aspect.

The National Library of Canada maintains a Union Catalogue of
holdings of Canadian libraries on its AMICUS database.  It concurs
with OCLC's concern regarding the problems in depending on the 007
to tell if an item is electronic for duplicate detection.

This paper discusses using the 008 to help assure that electronic
material can be identified.


2.     DISCUSSION

The following definition of "electronic"  (currently used by the
Library of Congress in its Interim Guidelines for Cataloging
Electronic Resources) is used below to define the code value
electronic:
       Electronic resource:  The term used to refer to a
       manifestation of a work encoded for manipulation by computer. 
       The manifestation resides in a carrier accessed either
       directly or remotely ... Some electronic resources may require
       use of a peripheral device attached to a computer (e.g. a CD-
       ROM player).  Note that ... this term does not include
       "electronic" resources that do not require the use of a
       computer, e.g., music compact discs, videodiscs. 

Books, Music, Serials, and Mixed Materials.  Character position
008/23 is defined as follows:
       008/23         Form of item 
          #    None of the following
          a    Microfilm
          b    Microfiche
          c    Microopaque
          d    Large print
          f    Braille
          r    Regular print reproduction
          (Codes g, h, i, and z are obsolete.)
A new value s could be defined for electronic in 008/23 and 006/06
(Form of item) for Books, Music, Serials, and Mixed Materials.  
 
Maps and Visual Materials.  Maps and Visual materials do not have
a character position for Form of item.  Visual materials contains
Type of visual material in 008/33, but since only one character
position has been allotted, only one value can be used.  It is
defined as follows:
       008/33 Type of visual material
          a    Art original
          b    Kit
          c    Art reproduction
          d    Diorama
          f    Filmstrip
          g    Game
          i    Picture
          k    Graphic
          l    Technical drawing
          m    Motion picture
          n    Chart
          o    Flash card
          p    Microscope slide
          q    Model
          r    Realia
          s    Slide
          t    Transparency
          v    Videorecording
          w    Toy
          z    Other
The codes would no longer be mutually exclusive with the addition
of a code for electronic, so another character position should be
used.  

Maps.  When Proposal No. 95-9 (Encoding of Digital Maps in the
USMARC Bibliographic Format) was discussed in June 1995, it was
suggested that a value for electronic be added in 008/25 (Type of
cartographic material).  This was considered an appropriate place
in maps, since none of the other values apply to a digital item. 
Although part of the paper was approved to change the definition of
Leader/06 value "e" to cartographic material (to include electronic
maps), this portion of the proposal was rejected in favor of
discussing the problem of electronic items in terms of all forms of
material.  Defining a new value in 008/25 for electronic might be
considered again.

For Maps, another character position to be considered is 008/33-34
(Special format characteristics).  Even though the categories are
not mutually exclusive electronic could be added to the codes since
two character positions are allocated.  
       008/33-34 Special format characteristics (Maps)
          #    No specified special format characteristics
          e    Manuscript
          j    Picture card, post card
          k    Calendar
          l    Puzzle
          m    Braille
          n    Game
          o    Wall map
          p    Playing cards
          q    Large print
          r    Loose-leaf
          z    Other
          (Codes a, b, c, d, f, g, and h are obsolete.)  

Alternatively, it might be better to define a new character
position and make it consistent with Visual Materials and so that
systems would not have to search in so many different places for
electronic.  A new character position 008/29 could be added to Maps
and Visual materials as Form of item with a value s  for
electronic.  The other values in 008/23 for other forms of
materials could also be added to this possible new character
position to make it consistent with Form of item for the other
forms of material; in this case the redundant codes in Maps 008/33-
34 would be made obsolete.  An example where this might be useful
is in Visual materials which are available on microfiche but
currently cannot be coded in the fixed field, even though it can be
coded for other types of material.

Coding the item in 008/23 or 008/29 (perhaps 008/25 or 008/33-34 in
Maps) would be used in addition to using field 007 to show the
electronic characteristics of an item.  In this case 007 would be
mandatory if applicable for electronic items as it is in practice
for microforms.  If the record is one for a print item with the
electronic delineated or noted in field 856 then the 008/23 or
008/29 would not contain the value for electronic.  An 007 could
identify that the record also covers the electronic version of the
item.  In summary, the fillowing identification rules would apply:

- If the primary item is electronic, then 008 and 007 are coded for
electronic (mandatory).

- If the same content is published simultaneously in electronic and
non-electronic form in a single package (i.e. the item has mixed
characteristics or there is not a primary item), then 008 and 007
are coded for electronic (mandatory)

- If the primary item described in the record (non-electronic) has
accompanying material that is electronic, 008 is not coded for
electronic.  However, the 006 and 007 may optionally be coded to
bring out the electronic aspects.

- If the record is one for an original in another medium (non-
electronic) with an electronic version delineated or noted in field
856, then only 007 is coded for electronic (optional).

- If the primary item described in the record is considered a
computer file (according to the revised Leader/06 code m
definition), then the Leader/06 and 007 are coded for electronic.

See Attachment A for examples of the above situations.

In the USMARC Bibliographic Format, Field 007 was mandatory if
applicable according to national level requirements until 1990,
when it was made optional after the definition of an 007 for text
(Proposal No. 89-8-6).  It has been mandatory if applicable in the
Canadian MARC format.  The Association of Research Libraries'
Guidelines for bibliographic records for preservation microform
masters (1990) requires field 007 for microforms, and the current
specification on the core record for serials  in the CONSER Editing
Guide stipulates that 007 is mandatory for microform and computer
file serials.  


3.     PROPOSED CHANGES

The following is presented for consideration in the USMARC
Bibliographic format:

       -       Add the following value to Books, Music, Serials, and
               Mixed Materials:
               008/23         Form of item
               006/06         Form of item
                s     Electronic

       -       Add the following value to Serials:
               008/22         Form of original item
               006/05         Form of original item
                s     Electronic

       -       Option 1.  
               Add the following character position and value to Maps
               and Visual Materials:
               008/29         Form of item
               006/12         Form of item
                #     None of the following
                a     Microfilm
                b     Microfiche
                c     Microopaque
                d     Large print
                f     Braille
                r     Regular print reproduction
                s     Electronic                    
               Make the following values obsolete in Maps 008/33-34
               (Special format characteristics):
                m     Braille
                q     Large print

               Option 2.
               Add the following character position and value to Visual
               Materials:
               008/29         Form of item
               006/12         Form of item 
                #     None of the following
                a     Microfilm
                b     Microfiche
                c     Microopaque
                d     Large print
                f     Braille
                r     Regular print reproduction
                s     Electronic                    

               Add the following value to Maps:
               008/25         Type of cartographic material
               006/08         Type of cartographic material
                s     Electronic

               Option 3.  
               Add the following character position and value to Visual
               Materials:
               008/29         Form of item
               006/12         Form of item 
                #     None of the following
                a     Microfilm
                b     Microfiche
                c     Microopaque
                d     Large print
                f     Braille
                r     Regular print reproduction
                s     Electronic                    

               Add the following value to Maps:
               008/33-34      Special format characteristics
               006/16-17      Special format characteristics                      
                s     Electronic

------------------------------------------------------------------

                                          ATTACHMENT A
                                            Examples

- If the primary item is electronic, then 008 and 007 are coded for
electronic (mandatory).

Ldr/06         e
007            CF added with appropriate values
008/29         s (Option 1)
       -or-
008/25         s (Option 2)
       -or-
008/33-34      s (Option 3)
245 00         $aStreet atlas USA$h[computer file]
300            $a1 computer laser optical disc ;$c4 3/4 in. + $e1 user's
               manual (24 p.)
520            $aContains street-level maps of the United States.
               Provides access to more than twelve million street
               segments...  Users can print and export maps, search by
               name, block range ...                

Ldr/06         a
007            CF added with appropriate values
008/23         s
100 1          $aThrapp, Dan L.
245 10         $aEncyclopedia of frontier biography$h[computer file]
               /$cDan L. Thrapp.
300            $a1 computer laser optical disc :$bcol. ;$c4 3/4 in. +$e1
               insert (23 p.)
520            $aCD-ROM version of the four volume encyclopedia which
               contains 5700 articles and 270 portraits related to
               frontier biography of the American West.  Includes search
               and retrieval software for accessing the data...

- If the same content is published simultaneously in electronic and
non-electronic form in a single package (i.e. the item has mixed
characteristics or there is not a primary item), then 008 and 007
are coded for electronic (mandatory)

Ldr/06         a
007            CF added with appropriate values
008/23         s
100 1          $aBremner, Lynn M.
245 10         $aIntranet bible /$cby Lynn M. Bremner, Anthony F. Iasi,
               and Al Servati.
300            $axvi, 464 p. :$bill. ;$c24 cm. +$e1 computer laser
               optical disc (4 3/4 in.)
500            $a"CD-ROM contains: an electronic version of the Intranet
               Bible, the Java and Perl programming languages, Adobe
               Acrobat reader, and other utilities"--p. [4] of cover."


- If the primary item described in the record (non-electronic) has
accompanying material that is electronic, 008 is not coded for
electronic.  However, the 006 and 007 may optionally be coded to
bring out the electronic aspects.

Ldr/06         a
006            CF added with appropriate values (if desirable)
007            CF added with appropriate values
008/23         not coded as s
100 1          $aMurray, James D.
245 10         $aEncyclopedia of graphics file formats /$cJames D.
               Murray and William vanRyper.
300            $axxxvi, 1116 p. :$bill. ;$c24 cm. +$e1 computer laser
               optical disc (4 3/4 in).
       
- If the record is one for an original in another medium (non-
electronic) with an electronic version delineated or noted in field
856, then only 007 is coded for electronic (optional).

Ldr/06         a
Ldr/07         s
007            CF added with appropriate values if desired
008/23         not coded as s
245 00         $aLibrary of Congress information bulletin
300            $av. :$bill. ;$c26-28 cm.
530            $aSome issues also available in an electronic version:
               Library of Congress information bulletin (Online), via
               Internet gopher and from the LC web site.
856 7          $zOnline version:
               $ugopher://marvel.loc.gov/11/loc/pubs/lcib$2gopher
856 4          $zOnline version: $u//www.loc.gov/loc/lcib$zScroll
               down and click on desired issue in either full graphics
               or text only format.

Ldr/06         k
007            CF added with appropriate values if desired
008/23         not coded as s
245 00         $aDaguerreotype Collection (library of Congress)
               $h[graphic].
300            $a<599   > photographs :$bdaguerreotypes
530            $aAvailable also through the Library of Congress Web site
               under title: America's first look into the camera:
               daguerreotype portraits and views ... This finding aid in
               electronic form, with reproductions, captions, and
               subject indexing for each image, was produced in 1995 for
               the National Digital Library Program...
856 4          $3Finding aid
               $u//lcweb2.loc.gov/ammem/daghtml/daghome.html

- If the primary item described in the record is considered a
computer file (according to the revised Leader/06 code m
definition), then the Leader/06 and 007 are coded for electronic.

Ldr/06         m
007            CF added with appropriate values
008            coded as computer file
245 00         $aArctic fisheries database$h[computer file] /$cproduced
               by the University of Alaska Anchorage in cooperation with
               NOAA and MMS.
300            $a1 computer laser optical disc ;$c4 3/4 in. +$e1 user's
               manual (ii, 58 p.) + 1 computer disk (3 1/2 in.)
500            $aDatabase of raw fisheries data collected over a period
               ... Aslo includes Arctic fisheries data retriever
               (version 2.00) software which can extract any subset of
               the database ...


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