On March 24, 2021, these 25 recordings were added to the National Recording Registry.
Library of Congress press release announcing the 2020 Registry.
Note: This is a national list and many of the items listed are housed in collections across the country. The Library of Congress does not currently hold copies of all the recordings listed.
Audio Montage for the 2020 National Recording Registry
Recordings are listed in chronological order:
Edison's "St. Louis tinfoil" recording. (1878)
It is quite possibly a record of the oldest playable recording of an American voice. It is a survivor—the earliest extant document that captures a musical performance. The recording is on a piece of tinfoil. It lasts 78 seconds and was made on a phonograph in St. Louis, Missouri, on June 22, 1878, just months after Thomas Edison invented his magic recording machine. For years the foil endured and went, not surprisingly, unplayed. Then, in the summer of 2013, the Museum of Science and Innovation (a.k.a. miSci) in Schenectady, New York, announced that physicists at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory had recovered the sound from this slip of shiny silver. The result was a surprisingly listenable musical and vocal interlude.
"Nikolina" (single). Hjalmar Peterson. (1917)
In "Nikolina," a young Swedish man tells of his comical difficulties with the father of the girl he is courting. The song was brought to America by Hjalmar Peterson (1886-1960), who settled in Minnesota and became a hugely popular entertainer among Swedish-Americans. He recorded "Nikolina" three times in the 'teens and 20s, in the process, selling more than 100,000 copies. In 1936, Ted Johnson, a former member of Peterson's troupe, re-recorded it with traditional instruments and it became a hit again, the first of many successful revivals.
Learn more (PDF, 223KB)
"Smyrneikos Balos" (single). Marika Papagika. (1928)
Born on the Greek island of Kos in 1890, singer Marika Papagika immigrated to New York City in 1915 with her musician husband Gus. She began recording in 1918, and quickly became one of the most popular singers in the Greek-American community, eventually recording well over 200 sides, often accompanied by her husband on the cimbalom. "Smyrneikos Balos," a lament for lost love that is also a couples' dance, was one of her most popular songs and she recorded it three times.
"When the Saints Go Marching In" (single). Louis Armstrong & his Orchestra. (1938)
In this first jazz recording of the famous hymn, Louis Armstrong, in the guise of "Rev. Satchelmouth," introduces this unusually atmospheric recording. From J.C. Higginbotham's shouting, preaching trombone, to Rev. Satchelmouth's respectful vocal (accompanied by some members of the "congregation") to the soaring and majestic trumpet solo, the performance commands attention. Armstrong fondly remembered "The Saints" from his childhood in New Orleans. His democratic attitude towards music saw little difference between the church and the dance hall, and as a result, he received backlash from clergy and fans for daring to mix the sacred with jazz. While that juxtaposition may seem mild today, the music certainly is not; it stands as a timeless testament to Louis Armstrong's many gifts.
Learn more (PDF, 214KB)
Christmas Eve Broadcast. Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill. (December 24, 1941)
On December 24th, 1941, President Franklin Roosevelt lit the White House Community Christmas Tree for the first time as the leader of a nation at war. The attack on Pearl Harbor was less than three weeks ago and though Americans were uneasy, it was a glimmer of hope for the people of Great Britain, who had been fighting the Nazis since 1939, and were staring across the English Channel at a Europe increasingly dominated by Germany. Prime Minister Winston Churchill made the dangerous journey across the Atlantic to visit President Franklin Roosevelt and address Congress. While staying at the White House, Churchill took part in the lighting of the White House Christmas Tree. He and President Roosevelt were heard coast-to-coast on the major US radio networks, and by short wave to much of the rest of the world. Churchill observed: "Here, in the midst of war, raging and roaring over all the lands and seas, creeping nearer to our hearts and homes, here, amid all the tumult, we have tonight the peace of the spirit in each cottage home and in every generous heart."
"The Guiding Light." (November 22, 1945)
"The Guiding Light" was the longest-running scripted program in broadcast history, running for a total of 72 years, from 1937 until 2009 on radio and television. The program was notable as an archetype of the highly populated radio "soap opera" genre, and as a breakthrough success of the innovative and prolific scriptwriter, Irna Phillips, whom many credit with inventing the entire genre. Although the later TV series revolved around the Bauer Family, the original radio version focused on the Rev. John Ruthledge and his congregation in the fictional community of Five Points. Rev. Ruthledge's reading lamp, visible to all who passed his house, was the program's namesake. Of the show's hundreds of episodes, the Registry adds this installment aired on the first Thanksgiving after the conclusion of World War II. With Rev. Ruthledge still serving overseas as a chaplain, his friend, the Reverend Dr. Frank Tuttle, gives a moving sermon to a packed church.
"Odetta Sings Ballads and Blues" (album). Odetta. (1957)
This is the debut album from an important voice in the folk revival--featuring a mix of blues, spirituals and ballads. Born in Birmingham, Alabama, Odetta was a major influence to a generation of folk singers, including the young Bob Dylan who has cited this album as what convinced him to trade in his electric guitar for an acoustic when he heard it as a 15-year-old teenager in Minnesota. This 16-song LP showcases Odetta's extraordinary vocal power which she always manages to temper with great emotion. Among the selections: "Muleskinner Blues," "Jack o' Diamonds," "Easy Rider," "Glory, Glory" and her concluding spiritual trilogy: "Oh, Freedom," "Come and Go With Me" and "I'm on My Way."
Learn more (PDF, 171KB)
Listen — "I'm On My Way" (MP3)
"Lord, Keep Me Day by Day" (single). Albertina Walker and the Caravans. (1959)
Influenced by and spurred on by her mentor, Mahalia Jackson, in 1947 Albertina Walker formed her own—and now legendary—gospel group, Albertina Walker and the Caravans. Soon, Walker would be nicknamed "Star Maker" for the incredible talent she fostered via her group. Shirley Caesar, Bessie Griffin, Rev. James Cleveland and Inez Andrews, among others, all began their careers as part of the Caravans. Meanwhile, Walker herself would inherit the title "Queen of Gospel Music," after the passing of Jackson in 1972. This 1959 recording was one of Walker’s signature songs and performances—a heartfelt, soulful, and sometimes bluesy testament to her faith, written by the group’s pianist Eddie Williams, who also sings lead.
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Roger Maris hits his 61st homerun. (October 1, 1961)
On October 1, 1961, Roger Maris hit his 61st homerun of the season, eclipsing Babe Ruth's previous homerun record. Phil Rizzuto's radio play-by-play of the entire at-bat is one of the most iconic moments in sports history. From the moment when the Yankee hitter stepped to the plate, Rizzuto captures the excitement and anticipation of a crowd ready to watch history being made, booing when the first two pitches miss the strike zone and then exploding when Maris connects with the third, prompting Rizzuto's trademark shout of "Holy Cow!" amid the deafening cheers.
Learn more (PDF, 258KB)
Reflections by Bob Costas (PDF, 218KB)
"Aida" (album). Leontyne Price, et.al. (1962)
This superb recording includes Leontyne Price in her signature role of Aida, a role that she performed over 40 times. Harold C. Schonberg, critic of the "New York Times," wrote "no soprano makes a career of acting. Voice is what counts, and voice is what Miss Price has." PBS viewers voted her singing (in a MET production) of the Act III aria, "O patria mia," as the No. 1 "Greatest Moment" in 30 years of "Live from the Met" telecasts. That performance ended with 25 minutes of sustained applause. And that was at her retirement! This 1962 recording captured Price's voice in her prime. The star-studded cast of this recording also includes Rita Gorr (who is a splendid Amneris), Robert Merrill (Amonasro, rich and firm vocally), and Jon Vickers as Radames (ringing and heroic).
"Once a Day" (single). Connie Smith. (1964)
Connie Smith has been called one of the most underrated vocalist in country music history. And she's greatly admired by her peers; Dolly Parton once said, "There's only three real female singers: Barbra Streisand, Linda Ronstadt, and Connie Smith. The rest of us are only pretending." Smith's rise to that level of admiration began with her very first single, "Once a Day," written by Bill Anderson who was already successful, both as a singer and a songwriter, when he heard Smith at a talent contest. He helped her get a recording contract and, for her first session, wrote "Once a Day," an achingly sad song about a jilted woman who misses her lover only "once a day, every day, all day long." Recorded at RCA's famous Studio B in Nashville, Smith was backed by session musicians and members of Anderson's band, The Po' Boys, including one new player, steel guitarist Weldon Myrick, who would go on to become a Nashville legend himself. Producer Bob Ferguson wanted the steel guitar to be right up front and Myrick delivered, so much so that Smith credits Myrick with "creating the Connie Smith sound." "Once a Day" was Connie Smith's biggest hit and became her signature song.
Learn more (PDF, 198KB)
Interview with Connie Smith (PDF, 172KB)
Interview with Bill Anderson (PDF, 249KB)
Inductees' Gallery - Bill Anderson, songwriter
Inductees' Gallery - Connie Smith, performer
"Born Under a Bad Sign" (album). Albert King. (1967)
Albert King, with his signature Flying V Gibson guitar played in his distinctive left-handed manner, was one of the blues' greatest guitarists, and this album is considered to be his very best. Its title song became a blues standard, and was soon recorded by Eric Clapton and Cream. Other great songs on this album include "Crosscut Saw" and "The Hunter." Recorded in Memphis with backing from Booker T and the MG's, and the Memphis Horns, via this album, King was soon performing at the Fillmore East and West and gaining a large and enduring following.
Learn more (PDF, 194KB)
"Free to Be…You & Me" (album). Marlo Thomas and Friends. (1972)
The 1972 album "Free to Be...You and Me" is remarkable both as a snapshot of social change with regard to gender norms and expectations in the early 1970s and for the wide array of talent it assembled. Marlo Thomas explained in a 2003 interview that the inspiration for the project came from her niece, and a desire for children's educational materials that did not impose rigid and arbitrary gender roles and societal expectations. Thomas expected modest sales at best, but the album quickly sold hundreds of thousands of copies, ultimately achieving gold, platinum, and diamond status. Those sales were likely due in part to Thomas's own celebrity status, but also because the album's message of gender equality resonated with a large segment of American society, young and old, male and female. Appearances by talents as varied as Diana Ross, Harry Belafonte, Dick Cavett, and former pro football player Rosey Grier (in "It's All Right to Cry") further ensured appeal to a wide audience. The album and follow-up book led to an ABC television special two years later, and the project was reprised in the 1988 TV special "Free to Be...A Family."
Learn more (PDF, 232KB)
Interview with Marlo Thomas (PDF, 225KB)
"The Harder They Come" (album). Jimmy Cliff. (1972)
In 1972, reggae singer Jimmy Cliff starred in the first Jamaican-produced feature film, "The Harder They Come." Around the time of the film's release, the soundtrack to this film made its way to American audiences and has been credited by "Rolling Stone" magazine as "the album that took reggae worldwide." Cliff has six songs on the album, including the title track, and the seminal "Many Rivers to Cross," which has since been covered by myriad artists, including Cher, John Lennon, UB40, Annie Lennox, Linda Ronstadt and Percy Sledge. While only the title track was recorded specifically for the soundtrack, the album collected numerous reggae stars and presented essential works in the genre to a new global audience. Other reggae pioneers and luminaries appearing on the album include Toots and the Maytals ("Pressure Drop" and "Sweet and Dandy"), Desmond Dekker ("Shanty Town"), and The Melodians ("Rivers of Babylon"). This exemplar of the diverse sounds of reggae in the '70s has enjoyed enormous critical praise and continued popularity in the US. The album has appeared on every version of "Rolling Stone's" Top 500 albums of all time.
Learn more (PDF, 224KB)
And more (PDF, 157KB)
"Lady Marmalade" (single). Labelle. (1974)
The elemental trio of Labelle—Patti LaBelle, Nona Hendryx and Sarah Dash—first formed in 1962 as Patti Labelle and The Bluebelles. By the early 1970s, they were simply Labelle, and released six albums under that name. Their biggest hit was this French-infused dance track written by Bob Crewe and Kenny Nolan and produced by Allen Toussaint and Vicki Wickham. Inspired by a few choice streets in New Orleans, the song has been covered several times since its release, still unwittingly prompting listeners to sing its famous refrain phonetically: "Voulez-vous coucher avec moi, (ce soir)?," often unaware of its true meaning.
Learn more (PDF, 489KB)
Interview with Patti Labelle (PDF, 168KB)
Interview with Nona Hendryx (PDF, 190KB)
Interview with Sarah Dash (PDF, 152KB)
Inductees' Gallery - Sarah Dash of Labelle, performer
"Late for the Sky" (album). Jackson Browne. (1974)
Although Jackson Browne had some success with his first two albums (in '72 and '73), in 1974, he was still primarily known as a songwriter, his works having been recorded by Linda Ronstadt, Tom Rush, and the Eagles, among others. "Late for the Sky", nominated for a Grammy a year later, changed all that. It was recorded more quickly and for less money than his previous album and neither of the album's released singles charted. But none of that mattered. The maturity and depth of Browne's writing did. Brilliantly supported by his touring band, especially David Lindley on guitar and fiddle, the lyrics deal with apocalypse, uncertainty, death, and, especially, love and the loss of it experienced by someone transitioning to manhood. In "Fountain of Sorrow," Browne wrote, "I'm just one or two years and a couple of changes behind you/In my lessons at love's pain and heartache school ...." When Browne was inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 2004, Bruce Springsteen called "Late for The Sky" Browne's "masterpiece."
Learn more (PDF, 293KB)
Interview with Jackson Browne (PDF, 544KB)
Listen — "Before the Deluge" (MP3)
"Bright Size Life" (album). Pat Metheny. (1976)
Pat Metheny's debut album, "Bright Size Life," signaled a new direction for jazz in the mid-1970s--not only for leader Pat Metheny, but also bassist Jaco Pastorius, drummer Bob Moses, and Gary Burton, who went uncredited as a producer at the time, though he wrote the album's liner notes. In their only album together, all participants built on the musical traditions that preceded them to create a new expression of jazz distinguished by their own styles and personalities, before blazing their own distinctive trails in the music. The album saw modest initial sales, but the passage of time has made its significance clear.
Learn more (PDF, 268KB)
Interview with Pat Metheny (PDF, 145KB)
Inductees' Gallery - Pat Metheny, performer
"The Rainbow Connection" (single). Kermit the Frog. (1979)
Written by Paul Williams and Kenneth Ascher, "Rainbow Connection" opened the Muppet's first foray into film in "The Muppet Movie." The song is performed by Kermit the Frog (voiced by Jim Henson), and was produced by Williams and Jim Henson. Williams and Ascher received an Academy Award nomination for Best Original Song at the 52nd Academy Awards for its composition. Since then, the song has been covered dozens of times, from Judy Collins in 1980 to Kacey Musgraves in 2019, but the Kermit/Henson recording remains the iconic version of the work. It has been used as a theme song by many charitable organizations, and its plaintive message about dreams and their fulfillment remains enduring.
Interview with co-songwriter Paul Williams (PDF, 156KB)
"Celebration" (single). Kool & the Gang. (1980)
Founded in 1964 by brothers Robert "Kool" Bell and Ronald Bell, Kool and the Gang (formerly the Jazziacs or the Soul Town Band early on) had already had hits with their songs "Ladies Night" and "Jungle Boogie," when they released their 1980 album "Celebrate!" containing the group's most famous and enduring song--"Celebration." Led by J.T. Taylor's spirited lead vocal, it would be their biggest hit and quickly became a feature of national celebrations like the 1980 World Series, the 1981 Super Bowl and the 1981 NBA Finals. While others have released covers to great success, such as Kylie Minogue in 1992, the original remains a staple of every party DJ's set list--be it at a high school dance or a 50th anniversary party.
Learn more (PDF, 246KB)
"Richard Strauss: Four Last Songs" (album). Jessye Norman. (1983)
This superb recording by African-American opera singer Jessye Norman is beloved by critics and audiences alike. In homage to Norman after her death in 2019, fans mentioned this recording most often as Norman's best, while Alex Ross in "The New Yorker" wrote of it: "In her prime, she let loose sounds of shimmering magnificence. Her timbre carried with it a sonic chiaroscuro: pure tones gleamed out of depth and shadow. I remember the dazed bliss I felt on first hearing her recording of 'Im Abendrot' ('At Sunset'), from Strauss's 'Four Last Songs.'"
Learn more (PDF, 433KB)
Listen — "Beim Schlafengehem" (MP3)
"Janet Jackson's Rhythm Nation 1814" (album). Janet Jackson. (1989)
Despite her record label's wishes, Janet Jackson resisted the urge to release another album like her previous "Control" (1986) in favor of an album with more socially conscious lyrics. On the album, Jackson explores issues of race, homelessness, poverty, and school violence among other topics. Musically, the album continued the productive relationship Jackson had enjoyed on "Control" with producers James "Jimmy Jam" Harris and Terry Lewis. The duo relied on drum machines and samples of street sounds, breaking glass, and trash can lids to create several brief interludes between the songs that lent the album a unified feel. Jackson's impeccable vocal timing also helped the producers build up dense multi-layered vocal mixes of the funky "Alright" and other songs on the LP. Despite such cutting-edge touches, Jackson did deliver dance songs like the lively "Escapade," but also on display were ballads like "Someday is Tonight" and even the guitar-driven rocker "Black Cat." Even the tunes with a serious call for racial healing and political unity like "Rhythm Nation" featured catchy beats, proving that dance music and a social message are not mutually exclusive.
Learn more (PDF, 291KB)
Interview with Jimmy Jam and Terry Lewis (PDF, 117KB)
Listen — "Rhythm Nation" (MP3)
"Partners" (album). Flaco Jiménez. (1992)
When asked about the significance of American roots music, Leonardo "Flaco" Jiménez once replied that it was in "the sharing and blending of different kinds of music, like a brotherhood thing. It makes the world rounder when there's coordination." Jiménez, the son of conjunto pioneer Santiago Jiménez, has combined tradition and innovation throughout his seven-decade career, working with artists as varied as the Rolling Stones, Dwight Yoakam, Carlos Santana, and Willie Nelson. On this bilingual album, the San Antonio-born artist shows this philosophy in action in collaborations with Stephen Stills, Linda Ronstadt, John Hiatt, Ry Cooder, Emmylou Harris, and Los Lobos, in a variety of traditional and contemporary musical settings.
Interview with Flaco Jiménez (PDF, 138KB)
Inductees' Gallery - Flaco Jiménez, performer
Radio Feature External
"Somewhere Over the Rainbow"/"What A Wonderful World" (single). Israel Kamakawiwo'ole. (1993)
Israel Kamakawiwo'ole, or "Bruddah Iz" or "Iz" as he was also known to his fans in Hawaii, created this medley of two classic pop standards. But, in it, he stayed true to his vision of creating contemporary Hawaiian music that fused reggae, jazz and traditional Hawaiian sounds. Driven primarily by Iz's angelic voice and ukulele playing, the song is melancholy and at once. Taken from Iz's album "Facing Future"—the first Hawaiian album ever certified platinum—this single was an international hit, and it has had a sustained life via its use in motion pictures, television programs and commercials.
Listen — "Somwehere Over the Rainbow" (MP3)
"Illmatic" (album). Nas. (1994)
Rapper Nasir bin Olu Dara Jones—"Nas"—released his groundbreaking studio debut in 1994. Critics quickly extoled it for its rhythmic originality, and its realistic yet fresh take on life in the Queensbridge projects. Characterized by the masterful use of multi-syllabic and internal rhyme, surprising line breaks, and rhythmic complexity, the album's technique has been widely copied and proven broadly influential. The album featured (along with Nas' father Olu Dara) the sample-soaked production of a set of deeply talented and experienced producers including Q-Tip, Large Professor, Pete Rock, L.E.S. and DJ Premier. The sound they forged features gritty drums, hazy vinyl samples and snatches of jazz and 70s R&B. It has been described as the sound of a kid in Queensbridge ransacking his parents' record collection. While the album pulls no punches about the danger, struggle and grit of Queensbridge, Nas recalls it as a musically rich environment that produced many significant rappers, and that he "felt proud being from Queensbridge…. [W]e were dressed fly in Ballys and the whole building was like a family."
Listen — "One Time 4 Your Mind" (MP3)
"This American Life: The Giant Pool of Money." (May 9, 2008)
While "This American Life" started as a radio series in 1995 and continues in that format on public radio, it has also found perhaps its greatest popularity as a podcast, with millions of listeners downloading it every week. The show describes itself as "journalism that is built around plot," and it is usually structured in "acts." "Life" is the first winner of the Pulitzer Prize for audio reporting. This episode, "The Giant Pool of Money," is from 2008. Co-produced with NPR News, it tells the story of the complex subprime mortgage crisis in a compelling and accessible form. The episode won a Peabody Award and is an exceptional example of the work that "This American Life" has done and continues to do on a regular basis. This is the first broadcast, available as a podcast, ever named to the National Recording Registry.