Book/Printed Material Image 35 of China : a country study

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IntroductionREFORM— DUBBED CHINA ' S " SECOND REVOLU- TION " — was one of the most common terms in China 's political vocabulary in the 1980s. Reform of the Chinese Communist Party and its political activities, reform of government organization, reform of the economy, military reforms, cultural and artistic reforms, indeed, China 's post-Mao Zedong leaders called for reform of every part of Chinese society. The leaders of the People 's Repub- lic of China saw reform as the way to realize the broad goal of the Four Modernizations (announced by Premier Zhou Enlai in 1975: the modernization of industry, agriculture, science and technology, and national defense) and to bring China into the community of advanced industrial nations by the start of the new millennium. The reform movement had antecedents in Chinese history in the Han (206 B.C.-A.D. 220), Song (960-1279), and Qing (1644- 1911) dynasties, when concerted efforts were made to bring about fundamental changes in administrative methods while keeping the overall institutional framework intact. Thus, the reform movement of the 1980s — which has been attributed largely to the insights and determination of Deng Xiaoping, the most important figure in the post-Mao Zedong leadership — took its place in the broad spectrum of Chinese history. As with previous reform movements, history will measure this one 's success.Late twentieth-century Chinese society has developed out of some 3,300 years of recorded history and, as archaeological finds indi- cate, several millennia of prehistoric civilization. For thousands of years, the Middle Kingdom (Zhongguo — the Chinese name for China) was marked by organizational and cultural continuity, which were reaffirmed in a cyclic rise, flourishing, and decline of imperial dynasties. Short-lived, vibrant, but often tyrannical dynasties fre- quently were followed by long periods of stability and benevolent rule that were built on the best features of the preceding era and that discarded or modified more authoritarian ideas. An ethical system of relations — governed by rules of propriety attributed to the School of Literati (also known as the Confucian school) — carefully defined each person 's place in society. In this system, har- mony of social relations rather than the rights of the individual was the ideal. The highest social status was held by scholar-officials, the literati who provided the interpretations needed for maintain- ing harmony in a slowly evolving world. Hard-working farmers,xxxi

About this Item

Title
China : a country study
Contributor Names
Worden, Robert L.
Savada, Andrea Matles, 1950-
Dolan, Ronald E., 1939-
Library of Congress. Federal Research Division.
Created / Published
Washington, D.C. : Federal Research Division, Library of Congress : For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., c1988.
Subject Headings
-  China
Notes
-  "Research completed July 1987."
-  Supersedes the 1981 ed. of China : a country study, prepared by Foreign Area Studies, the American University and edited by Frederica M. Bunge and Rinn-Sup Shinn.
-  Includes bibliographical references (p. 637-697) and index.
-  Also available in digital form.
Medium
xli, 732 p. : ill. ; 24 cm.
Call Number/Physical Location
DS706 .C489 1988
Z663.275 .C48 1988 Copy 3.
Library of Congress Control Number
87600493
Language
English
Online Format
image
online text
pdf
Description
"Research completed July 1987." Supersedes the 1981 ed. of China : a country study, prepared by Foreign Area Studies, the American University and edited by Frederica M. Bunge and Rinn-Sup Shinn. Includes bibliographical references (p. 637-697) and index. Also available in digital form.
LCCN Permalink
https://lccn.loc.gov/87600493
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MODS Record
Dublin Core Record
IIIF Presentation Manifest
Manifest (JSON/LD)

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Sample format for citing a Country Study:

Metz, Helen Chapin, ed. Turkey:  A Country Study. Washington, DC: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1996.

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Citations are generated automatically from bibliographic data as a convenience, and may not be complete or accurate.

Chicago citation style:

Worden, Robert L, Andrea Matles Savada, Ronald E Dolan, and Library Of Congress. Federal Research Division. China: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O, 1988. Pdf. https://www.loc.gov/item/87600493/.

APA citation style:

Worden, R. L., Savada, A. M., Dolan, R. E. & Library Of Congress. Federal Research Division. (1988) China: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O. [Pdf] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/87600493/.

MLA citation style:

Worden, Robert L, et al. China: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O, 1988. Pdf. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <www.loc.gov/item/87600493/>.

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