Book/Printed Material Image 367 of Egypt : a country study
antisubmarine missiles. In mid- 1988 the air force also took deliv-
ery of the first of six Grumman E-2c Hawkeye aircraft with search
and side-looking radar for maritime surveillance purposes.
Air Defense Force
After most of the country 's aircraft was destroyed on the ground
in 1967, the military placed responsibility for air defense under
one commander. Responsibility had previously been divided among
several commands. Egypt patterned its new Air Defense Force
(ADF) after the Soviet Air Defense Command, which integrated
all its air defense capabilities — antiaircraft guns, rocket and mis-
sile units, interceptor planes, and radar and warning installations.
In 1989 the ADF had an estimated 80,000 ground and air per-
sonnel, including 50,000 conscripts. Its main constituents were 100
antiaircraft-gun battalions, 65 battalions of SA-2 SAMs, 60 battalions
of SA-3 SAMs, 12 batteries of improved Hawk SAMs (I-Hawk),
and 1 battery of Crotale missiles. Each battalion had between 200
and 500 men, and from four to eight battalions composed a brigade.
Gun and missile sites were located along the Suez Canal, around
Cairo, and near some other cities to protect military installations
and strategic civilian targets. The ADF deployed some of its more
mobile weapons in the Western Desert as a defense against possi-
ble Libyan incursions.
Progress was being made on a national air-defense network that
would integrate all existing radars, missile batteries, air bases, and
command centers into an automated command and control sys-
tem. The ADF planned to link the system to the Hawkeye early
A large share of the ADF 's antiaircraft artillery, SAMs, and ra-
dar equipment was imported from the Soviet Union. As of 1989,
the most modern weapons in the air defense system were the 108
medium-altitude I-Hawk SAMs acquired from the United States
beginning in 1982. These weapons were supplemented by 400 older
Soviet-made SA-2 SAMs with a slant range of forty to fifty kilo-
meters and about 240 SA-3s, which provided shorter- range defense
against low-flying targets. A British firm helped the ADF modern-
ize the SA-2s. In addition, Egypt was producing its own SAM,
the Tayir as Sabah (Morning Flight), based on the design of the
SA-2. The ADF had mounted sixty Soviet SA-6 SAMs on tracked
vehicles as tactical launchers. Sixteen tracked vehicles provided
mobile launching platforms for its fifty French-manufactured Cro-
tale SAM launchers. Egypt was also introducing its own composite
gun-missile-radar system known as Amun (skyguard), integrating
About this Item
- Egypt : a country study
- Contributor Names
- Metz, Helen Chapin, 1928-
- Library of Congress. Federal Research Division.
- Created / Published
- Washington, D.C. : Federal Research Division, Library of Congress : For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O., 1991.
- Subject Headings
- - Egypt
- - "Research completed December 1990."
- - Supercedes the 1983 ed. of Egypt : a country study, edited by Richard F. Nyrop and issued by Foreign Area Studies, American University.
- - Includes bibliographical references (p. 369-391) and index.
- - Also available in digital form.
- xxxv, 428 p. : ill., maps ; 24 cm.
- Call Number/Physical Location
- DT46 .E32 1991
- Library of Congress Control Number
- Online Format
- online text
- "Research completed December 1990." Supercedes the 1983 ed. of Egypt : a country study, edited by Richard F. Nyrop and issued by Foreign Area Studies, American University. Includes bibliographical references (p. 369-391) and index. Also available in digital form.
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Sample format for citing a Country Study:
Metz, Helen Chapin, ed. Turkey: A Country Study. Washington, DC: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1996.
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Chicago citation style:
Metz, Helen Chapin, and Library Of Congress. Federal Research Division. Egypt: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O, 1991. Pdf. https://www.loc.gov/item/91029876/.
APA citation style:
Metz, H. C. & Library Of Congress. Federal Research Division. (1991) Egypt: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O. [Pdf] Retrieved from the Library of Congress, https://www.loc.gov/item/91029876/.
MLA citation style:
Metz, Helen Chapin, and Library Of Congress. Federal Research Division. Egypt: A Country Study. Washington, D.C.: Federal Research Division, Library of Congress: For sale by the Supt. of Docs., U.S. G.P.O, 1991. Pdf. Retrieved from the Library of Congress, <www.loc.gov/item/91029876/>.